Patterns of Regional Brain Atrophy and Brain Aging in Middle- and Older-Aged Adults With Type 1 Diabetes
IMPORTANCE:Little is known about structural brain changes in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and whether there are early manifestations of a neurodegenerative condition like Alzheimer disease (AD) or evidence of premature brain aging. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate neuroimaging markers of brain age and AD-like atrophy in participants with T1D in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, identify which brain regions are associated with the greatest changes in patients with T1D, and assess the association between cognition and brain aging indices. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This cohort study leveraged data collected during the combined DCCT (randomized clinical trial, 1983-1993) and EDIC (observational study, 1994 to present) studies at 27 clinical centers in the US and Canada. A total of 416 eligible EDIC participants and 99 demographically similar adults without diabetes were enrolled in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ancillary study, which reports cross-sectional data collected in 2018 to 2019 and relates it to factors measured longitudinally in DCCT/EDIC. Data analyses were performed between July 2020 and April 2022. EXPOSURE:T1D diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Psychomotor and mental efficiency were evaluated using verbal fluency, digit symbol substitution test, trail making part B, and the grooved pegboard. Immediate memory scores were derived from the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale and the Wechsler digit symbol substitution test. MRI and machine learning indices were calculated to predict brain age and quantify AD-like atrophy. RESULTS:This study included 416 EDIC participants with a median (range) age of 60 (44-74) years (87 of 416 [21%] were older than 65 years) and a median (range) diabetes duration of 37 (30-51) years. EDIC participants had consistently higher brain age values compared with controls without diabetes, indicative of approximately 6 additional years of brain aging (EDIC participants: β, 6.16; SE, 0.71; control participants: β, 1.04; SE, 0.04; P < .001). In contrast, AD regional atrophy was comparable between the 2 groups. Regions with atrophy in EDIC participants vs controls were observed mainly in the bilateral thalamus and putamen. Greater brain age was associated with lower psychomotor and mental efficiency among EDIC participants (β, -0.04; SE, 0.01; P < .001), but not among controls. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:The findings of this study suggest an increase in brain aging among individuals with T1D without any early signs of AD-related neurodegeneration. These increases were associated with reduced cognitive performance, but overall, the abnormal patterns seen in this sample were modest, even after a mean of 38 years with T1D.
Improving quality of life and self-care for patients on hemodialysis using cognitive behavioral strategies: A randomized controlled pilot trial
INTRODUCTION:Behavioral-education interventions have the potential to improve quality of life and self-care for patients on hemodialysis (HD) but have not been incorporated into routine clinical practice. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of delivering a simple behavioral-education intervention using cognitive behavioral strategies in patients receiving HD with poor quality of life. METHODS:In this mixed methods study, HD patients were randomly assigned to the study intervention (8 behavioral-education sessions delivered over 12 weeks) or a control group of dialysis education alone. Kidney disease quality of life (KDQOL)-36 scores, depressive symptoms and self-care behaviors were measured at weeks 0, 8, and 16. Following study completion, participants, social workers, and physicians provided their perspectives about the intervention via qualitative interviews. FINDINGS:Forty-five participants were randomized. Due, in part, to social worker attrition from the intervention arm, 34 participants (76%) completed at least 1 study session and were included in the analysis. The intervention led to modest, but non-significant, increase in KDQOL-physical component summary scores (+3.1±1.2 points) from week 0 to week 16. There were small, non-significant decreases in interdialytic weight gain and pre-dialysis phosphorus levels in the intervention group. Participants felt that chair-side delivery was practical and efficient, and that content related to the impact of dialysis on daily life was unique and important. Suggestions for adapting the intervention included narrowing its content and its delivery by additional providers that are not necessarily therapy trained. DISCUSSION:In this pilot study, we were able to deliver a simple behavioral-education intervention to improve both quality of life and self-care. Participants had a positive impression of the intervention, but we did not find significant improvements in quality of life or self-care. We will now adapt our intervention by narrowing its content and by using other providers that are focused solely on delivering the intervention.
Physical Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Long-term Follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study
OBJECTIVE:To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of functional limitations in middle-aged and older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Functional limitations were assessed for 1,094 participants in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, a multicenter, longitudinal, observational follow-up of participants with type 1 diabetes randomly assigned to intensive or conventional diabetes therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). The primary outcome measure was a score <10 on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). The secondary outcome, self-reported functional limitation, was assessed by written questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to assess associations of both outcomes with demographic and clinical factors (glycemic and nonglycemic factors, micro- and macrovascular complications, DCCT cohort, and treatment assignment). RESULTS:Participants were 53% male, with mean Â± SD age 59.5 Â± 6.8 years and diabetes duration 37.9 Â± 4.9 years. The prevalence of SPPB score <10 was 21%. The prevalence of self-reported functional limitations was 48%. While DCCT treatment assignment was not associated with physical function outcomes measured âˆ¼25 years after the end of the DCCT, the time-weighted mean DCCT/EDIC HbA1c was associated with both outcomes. Other clinical factors associated with both outcomes in multivariable analyses were BMI, general psychological distress, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS:Almost half of the middle-aged and older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes reported functional limitations, which were associated with higher HbA1c and BMI, general psychological distress, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Future research is needed to determine whether these findings are generalizable.
Brain Structure Among Middle-aged and Older Adults With Long-standing Type 1 Diabetes in the DCCT/EDIC Study
OBJECTIVE:Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are living to ages when neuropathological changes are increasingly evident. We hypothesized that middle-aged and older adults with long-standing T1DM will show abnormal brain structure in comparison with control subjects without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:MRI was used to compare brain structure among 416 T1DM participants in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study with that of 99 demographically similar control subjects without diabetes at 26 U.S. and Canadian sites. Assessments included total brain (TBV) (primary outcome), gray matter (GMV), white matter (WMV), ventricle, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes and total white matter mean fractional anisotropy (FA). Biomedical assessments included HbA1c and lipid levels, blood pressure, and cognitive assessments of memory and psychomotor and mental efficiency (PME). Among EDIC participants, HbA1c, severe hypoglycemia history, and vascular complications were measured longitudinally. RESULTS:Mean age of EDIC participants and control subjects was 60 years. T1DM participants showed significantly smaller TBV (least squares mean Â± SE 1,206 Â± 1.7 vs. 1,229 Â± 3.5 cm3, P < 0.0001), GMV, and WMV and greater ventricle and WMH volumes but no differences in total white matter mean FA versus control subjects. Structural MRI measures in T1DM were equivalent to those of control subjects who were 4-9 years older. Lower PME scores were associated with altered brain structure on all MRI measures in T1DM participants. CONCLUSIONS:Middle-aged and older adults with T1DM showed brain volume loss and increased vascular injury in comparison with control subjects without diabetes, equivalent to 4-9 years of brain aging.
Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia effects on anterior cingulate cortex myoinositol-relation to brain network functional connectivity in healthy adults
Brain mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes metabolic disorders-hyperglycemia and insulin resistance-with cognitive impairment are unknown. Myoinositol is a brain metabolite involved in cell osmotic balance, membrane phospholipid turnover, and second messenger neurotransmission, which affect brain function. Increased brain myoinositol and altered functional connectivity have been found in diabetes, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease, but the independent effects of plasma glucose and insulin on brain myoinositol and function are not characterized. We measured myoinositol concentrations in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region involved in self-reflective awareness and decision making, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and whole brain resting-state functional connectivity using fMRI, during acute hyperglycemia (with attendant hyperinsulinemia) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemia compared with basal fasting-euglycemia (EU) in 11 healthy nondiabetic participants (5 women/6 men, means Â± SD, age: 27 Â± 7 yr, fasting-glucose: 5.2â€‰Â±â€‰0.4 mmol/L, fasting-insulin: 4.9â€‰Â±â€‰4.4 Î¼U/mL). Brain MR data were acquired during two separate visits: 1) EU followed by a 60-min hyperglycemic-clamp (glucose: 10.7â€‰Â±â€‰0.2 mmol/L, insulin: 33â€‰Â±â€‰6 Î¼U/mL); 2) EU followed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp (glucose: 5.3â€‰Â±â€‰0.1 mmol/L, insulin: 27â€‰Â±â€‰5 Î¼U/mL) designed to match individual insulin levels achieved during the visit 1 hyperglycemic-clamp. Myoinositol decreased by 14% during the hyperglycemic-clamp (from 7.7â€‰Â±â€‰1.5 mmol/kg to 6.6â€‰Â±â€‰0.8 mmol/kg, P = 0.031), and by 9% during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp (from 7.1â€‰Â±â€‰0.7 mmol/kg to 6.5â€‰Â±â€‰0.7 mmol/kg, P = 0.014), with no significant difference between the two clamps. Lower myoinositol was associated with higher functional connectivity of the thalamus and precentral cortex with insula-ACC-related networks, suggesting myoinositol is involved in insulin modulation of cognitive/emotional network function in healthy adults. Regional brain myoinositol levels may be useful biomarkers for monitoring cognitive and mood-enhancing treatment responses.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hyperinsulinemia-related decreases of brain anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) myoinositol independent of plasma glucose levels and the association of low ACC myoinositol with increased functional connectivity between sensorimotor regions and ACC/insula-related networks suggest involvement of myoinositol in insulin-modulated brain network function in healthy adults. In diabetes, elevated brain myoinositol may be due to reduced brain insulin levels or action, rather than hyperglycemia, and may be involved in brain network dysfunctions leading to cognitive or mood disorders.
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Urological Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: Findings From the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate associations between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and urological complications in men and women with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Measurements of DPN at Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC) years 1, 14, and 17 and urological complications at EDIC year 17 were examined in 635 men (mean age 51.6 years, diabetes duration 29.5 years) and 371 women (mean age 50.6 years, diabetes duration 29.8 years) enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/EDIC study. DPN was defined by symptoms, signs, and abnormal electrophysiology or by abnormal Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) examination or questionnaire scores. RESULTS:Erectile dysfunction (ED) in combination with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was reported in 15% of men and female sexual dysfunction (FSD), LUTS, and urinary incontinence (UI) in 16% of women. Adjusted for age, drinking status, BMI, depression, DCCT/EDIC time-weighted mean HbA1c, microalbuminuria, hypertension, triglycerides, and statin medication use, the odds of reporting ED and LUTS versus no ED or LUTS at EDIC year 17 were 3.52 (95% CI 1.69, 7.31) times greater in men with confirmed DPN at EDIC year 13/14 compared to men without confirmed DPN. Compared to men without DPN, men with DPN based on abnormal MNSI examination or questionnaire scores had significantly higher odds of reporting ED and LUTS versus no ED or LUTS at EDIC year 17. There were no significant differences in DPN between women reporting both FSD and LUTS/UI compared with those without FSD or LUTS/UI at EDIC year 17. CONCLUSIONS:In long-standing T1D, DPN is associated with the later development of urological complications in men.
Cognitive performance declines in older adults with type 1 diabetes: results from 32 years of follow-up in the DCCT and EDIC Study
BACKGROUND:With improved treatment, individuals with type 1 diabetes are living longer but there is limited information on the effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive ability as they become older adults. We followed up individuals with type 1 diabetes to identify independent risk factors for cognitive decline as people age. METHODS:levels, frequency of severe hypoglycaemia, non-glycemic risk factors such as elevated blood pressure, and microvascular and macrovascular complications were assessed repeatedly. We examined the effects of these on measures of memory and psychomotor and mental efficiency. These studies are registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00360815 (DCCT) and NCT00360893 (EDIC). FINDINGS:levels, more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, and elevated systolic blood pressure were associated with greater decrements in psychomotor and mental efficiency that was most notable by year 32 (p<0Â·0001). The combined effect of the presence of these three risk factors is the equivalent to an additional 9Â·4 years of age. INTERPRETATION:Cognitive function declines with ageing in type 1 diabetes. The association of glycaemia and blood pressure levels with cognitive decline suggests that better management might preserve cognitive function. FUNDING:United States National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease.
Risk factors for orgasmic and concomitant erectile dysfunction in men with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
In this study, we sought to determine the burden and characteristics of orgasmic dysfunction (OD) and concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with type 1 diabetes (T1D) enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. In 2010, we assessed orgasmic and erectile function using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Sociodemographic, clinical, and diabetes characteristics were compared by OD status (OD only, OD and ED, no ED or OD). Age-adjusted associations between risk factors and OD status were examined. OD and ED information was available from 563 men. Eighty-three men (14.7%) reported OD of whom 21 reported OD only and 62 reported OD and ED. Age-adjusted odds ratios demonstrated that men who reported OD only had higher odds of depression, low sexual desire, and decreased alcohol use compared with men reporting no dysfunction. Men with OD concomitant with ED had greater odds of elevated hemoglobin A1C, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and nephropathy. Men reporting both dysfunctions were also more likely to report smoking, lower urinary tract symptoms, and had greater odds of androgen deficiency than men with no sexual dysfunction. Men with longstanding T1D suffer from an increased burden of OD. Psychogenic factors predominate in men reporting OD only while men who present with concomitant ED report increased burden of diabetes severity, characteristics previously observed with incident ED. ED may be the central impediment to sexual function in men with OD and ED. Longitudinal studies to characterize OD and ED experience over time are warranted.
Acute Hyperglycemia Increases Brain Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Glutamate Concentrations in Type 1 Diabetes
The brain mechanisms underlying the association of hyperglycemia with depressive symptoms are unknown. We hypothesized that disrupted glutamate metabolism in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) without depression affects emotional processing. Using proton MRS, we measured glutamate concentrations in ACC and occipital lobe cortex (OCC) in 13 subjects with T1D without major depression (HbA1c 7.1 Â± 0.7% [54 Â± 7 mmol/mol]) and 11 healthy control subjects without diabetes (HbA1c 5.5 Â± 0.2% [37 Â± 3 mmol/mol]) during fasting euglycemia followed by a 60-min +5.5 mmol/L hyperglycemic clamp (HG). Intrinsic neuronal activity was assessed using resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI to measure the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in slow-4 band (fALFF4). Emotional processing and depressive symptoms were assessed using emotional tasks (emotional Stroop task, self-referent encoding task [SRET]) and clinical ratings (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D], Symptom Checklist-90 Revised [SCL-90-R]), respectively. During HG, ACC glutamate increased (1.2 mmol/kg, 10% P = 0.014) while ACC fALFF4 was unchanged (-0.007, -2%, P = 0.449) in the T1D group; in contrast, glutamate was unchanged (-0.2 mmol/kg, -2%, P = 0.578) while fALFF4 decreased (-0.05, -13%, P = 0.002) in the control group. OCC glutamate and fALFF4 were unchanged in both groups. T1D had longer SRET negative word response times (P = 0.017) and higher depression rating scores (HAM-D P = 0.020, SCL-90-R depression P = 0.008). Higher glutamate change tended to associate with longer emotional Stroop response times in T1D only. Brain glutamate must be tightly controlled during hyperglycemia because of the risk for neurotoxicity with excessive levels. Results suggest that ACC glutamate control mechanisms are disrupted in T1D, which affects glutamatergic neurotransmission related to emotional or cognitive processing. Increased prefrontal glutamate during acute hyperglycemic episodes could explain our previous findings of associations among chronic hyperglycemia, cortical thinning, and depressive symptoms in T1D.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress: treated cases versus propensity-matched controls
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Given the high mortality and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation of COVID-19 patients, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress. Methods/UNASSIGNED:This is a single-center clinical trial of COVID-19 patients at NYU Winthrop Hospital from March 31 to April 28, 2020. Patients in this trial received hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2.0 atmospheres of pressure in monoplace hyperbaric chambers for 90 minutes daily for a maximum of five total treatments. Controls were identified using propensity score matching among COVID-19 patients admitted during the same time period. Using competing-risks survival regression, we analyzed our primary outcome of inpatient mortality and secondary outcome of mechanical ventilation. Results/UNASSIGNED:We treated 20 COVID-19 patients with hyperbaric oxygen. Ages ranged from 30 to 79 years with an oxygen requirement ranging from 2 to 15 liters on hospital days 0 to 14. Of these 20 patients, two (10%) were intubated and died, and none remain hospitalized. Among 60 propensity-matched controls based on age, sex, body mass index, coronary artery disease, troponin, D-dimer, hospital day, and oxygen requirement, 18 (30%) were intubated, 13 (22%) have died, and three (5%) remain hospitalized (with one still requiring mechanical ventilation). Assuming no further deaths among controls, we estimate that the adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios were 0.37 for inpatient mortality (p=0.14) and 0.26 for mechanical ventilation (p=0.046). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Though limited by its study design, our results demonstrate the safety of hyperbaric oxygen among COVID-19 patients and strongly suggests the need for a well-designed, multicenter randomized control trial.