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Flight simulator training effectiveness: A meta-analysis

Hays, Robert T; Jacobs, John W; Prince, Carolyn; Salas, Eduardo
Conducted a meta-analysis of flight simulation research to identify important characteristics associated with the effectiveness of simulator training. Some 247 articles, research reports, and technical reports were located, from which 26 experiments were identified as having sufficient information for statistical meta-analysis. The major finding was that the use of simulators combined with aircraft training consistently produced improvements in training for jets compared to aircraft training only. Use of motion cuing added little to the training environments for jets. The average effectiveness of performance-paced training was greater than that for lock-step training. In general, training outcomes appear to be influenced considerably by the type of task and the amount and type of training given.
ISSN: 0899-5605
CID: 24899

Requirements for future research in flight simulation training: Guidance based on a meta-analytic review

Hays, Robert T; Jacobs, John W; Prince, Carolyn; Salas, Eduardo
Applied a quantitative review approach, referred to as meta-analysis, to transfer of training experiments. From a total of 247 journal articles and technical reports, only 26 experiments (19 involving jet aircraft and 7 involving helicopters) were included in the final meta-analysis. Drawing on the meta-analytic review, an agenda for future research is outlined, and guidelines for reporting research results are presented.
ISSN: 1050-8414
CID: 24900

Euripides' Medea: a psychodynamic model of severe divorce pathology [Case Report]

Jacobs, J W
Analysis of Euripides' play, Medea, and a divorcing family suggests that divorce between a narcissistically scarred, embittered, dependent woman and a pathologically narcissistic, devaluing man may lead to the mother's attempt to sever father-child contact as a means of revenging the injury inflicted on her by the loss of a selfobject, her hero-husband.
PMID: 3400789
ISSN: 0002-9564
CID: 336022

Divorce and child custody resolution: conflicting legal and psychological paradigms

Jacobs, J W
The resolution of divorce conflict, especially the determination of child custody, is a major social policy concern of both the legal and mental health professions. The differences between the adversarial and mediation legal approaches parallel the phenomenological/psychoanalytic and the family therapy models of the mental health field. A philosophical and practical relationship exists uniting the adversarial and phenomenological/psychoanalytic traditions, while mediation is strongly aligned with family systems theory and therapy. Each paradigm offers American families alternative methods of resolving disputes. A greater synthesis of paradigms is required to give effective help to divorcing couples and their children.
PMID: 3946653
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 335932

Associative and categorical processes in children's memory: The role of automaticity in the development of organization in free recall

Bjorklund, David F; Jacobs, John W
Assessed free recall performance in 60 children each in Grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 (Exp I) and 40 adults (mean age 28 yrs 10 mo) (Exp II) on a list of categorically related words constructed so that some items within a category were highly associated with one another and interitem associations were low among other items (e.g., dog, cat, cow, lion, tiger). Associative relations were used frequently in recall by Ss of all ages, with analyses of interitem latencies and correlations between recall and clustering indicating that organization in recall was based only on associative relations for the 3rd and 5th graders but based on both associative and nonassociative categorical relations for older Ss. Examination of the placement of high associates in recall indicated that 7th and 9th graders were more apt to use associative relations to begin category clusters than were younger Ss or adults. Seventh and 9th graders were hypothesized to use the relatively automatic activation of associative relations to instigate categorical organization and to represent a stage in development between nonstrategic younger Ss and strategic adults. Results are discussed in terms of the role that the automatic activation of semantic memory relations may play in the development of strategic memory organization.
ISSN: 0022-0965
CID: 24903

A developmental examination of ratings of associative strength

Bjorklund, David F; Jacobs, John W
Obtained ratings of the associative strength between members of pairs of categorically related words from 24 3rd, 21 4th, 42 6th, and 43 8th graders and 50 college students. Items consisted of 5 examples from each of 5 taxonomic categories (animals, clothing, occupations, seasonings, and weapons). Mean associative strength ratings were computed for each intra- and intercategory word pair separately at each grade level; there were 50 intra- and 20 intercategory pairs. Data indicate that estimates of associative strength changed relatively little over the age ranges tested; for 4 of the 5 categories tested, average correlations between the child groups and the adults were high and showed minimal variation. For the clothes category, ratings of the 3rd graders differed from those of the other Ss. (8 ref)
ISSN: 0743-3808
CID: 24904

Treatment of divorcing fathers: social and psychotherapeutic considerations [Case Report]

Jacobs, J W
The author summarizes the psychotherapeutic issues most frequently encountered in his crisis treatment of 16 divorcing fathers for whom divorce was fundamentally a child-centered crisis. Fear and guilt over separation from children and wife, outrage and disappointment with the legal system, anxiety about the social and sexual readjustment to single life, and the need to develop strategies for continued child contact were most prevalent. The author's suggestions for the management of these issues include the therapist's familiarization with divorce as it affects and is influenced by intrapsychic, interpersonal, familial, and legal systems.
PMID: 6624957
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 335942

The effect of divorce on fathers: an overview of the literature

Jacobs, J W
Divorce is becoming a major mental health problem in the United States. With rare exception psychological attention has usually focused on the effect of divorce on children and mothers. The author suggests that as some fathers become more involved in family nurturing they will be more intensely affected by marital disruption, particularly as it involves changes in the relationship to their children. A review of the recent psychological literature on divorce and custody is presented as a framework for understanding the divorcing father who is requesting psychiatric help.
PMID: 6751100
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 335952

Detection of cognitive deficits by a brief mental status examination: the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination, a reappraisal and a review

Kaufman, D M; Weinberger, M; Strain, J J; Jacobs, J W
Results of a brief mental status questionnaire, the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE), were compared with the clinical evaluations of 59 patients on a neurology service. In 71% of the cases, the CCSE scores correctly indicated a cognitive deficit (true-positive) or the absence of one (true-negative); false-negative results were observed in 15% and questionable negative results were found in 10%. Abnormal neurologic physical signs were present in 90% of all patients with cognitive deficits. In this population, although positive CCSE scores were reliable, negative scores were often misleading. Mild diffuse intellectual dysfunction (dementia) and some discrete intellectual deficits (aphasia and anosognosia) went undetected. Cognitive deficits associated with major cerebral disease were unappreciated in nine patients. Caution is recommended in interpreting negative CCSE scores. Abbreviated screening devices are only a preliminary approach to mental status evaluation; this test requires further refinement.
PMID: 499797
ISSN: 0163-8343
CID: 335962

Undiagnosed patients. Model for psychiatric service to medical practitioner [Case Report]

Jacobs, J W
PMID: 276690
ISSN: 0028-7628
CID: 335972