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Racial disparities among older adults with acute myocardial infarction: The SILVER-AMI study

Demkowicz, Patrick C; Hajduk, Alexandra M; Dodson, John A; Oladele, Carol R; Chaudhry, Sarwat I
BACKGROUND:Despite an aging population, little is known about racial disparities in aging-specific functional impairments and mortality among older adults hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS:We analyzed data from patients aged 75 years or older who were hospitalized for AMI at 94 US hospitals from 2013 to 2016. Functional impairments and geriatric conditions were assessed in-person during the AMI hospitalization. The association between race and risk of mortality (primary outcome) was evaluated with logistic regression adjusted sequentially for age, clinical characteristics, and measures of functional impairment and other conditions associated with aging. RESULTS:Among 2918 participants, 2668 (91.4%) self-identified as White and 250 (8.6%) as Black. Black participants were younger (80.8 vs 81.7 years; p = 0.010) and more likely to be female (64.8% vs 42.5%; p < 0.001). Black participants were more likely to present with impairments in cognition (37.6% vs 14.5%; p < 0.001), mobility (66.0% vs 54.6%; p < 0.001) and vision (50.1% vs 35.7%; p < 0.001). Black participants were also more likely to report a disability in one or more activities of daily living (22.4% vs 13.0%; p < 0.001) and an unintentional loss of more than 10 lbs in the year prior to hospitalization (37.2% vs 13.0%; p < 0.001). The unadjusted odds of 6-month mortality among Black participants (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.8) attenuated to non-significance after adjustment for age, clinical characteristics (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.7, 1.2-2.5), and functional/geriatric conditions (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2). CONCLUSIONS:Black participants had a more geriatric phenotype despite a younger average age, with more functional impairments. Controlling for functional impairments and geriatric conditions attenuated disparities in 6-month mortality somewhat. These findings highlight the importance of systematically assessing functional impairment during hospitalization and also ensuring equitable access to community programs to support post-AMI recovery among Black older adults.
PMID: 36415964
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5384192

A New Era in Cardiac Rehabilitation Delivery: Research Gaps, Questions, Strategies, and Priorities

Beatty, Alexis L; Beckie, Theresa M; Dodson, John; Goldstein, Carly M; Hughes, Joel W; Kraus, William E; Martin, Seth S; Olson, Thomas P; Pack, Quinn R; Stolp, Haley; Thomas, Randal J; Wu, Wen-Chih; Franklin, Barry A
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a guideline-recommended, multidisciplinary program of exercise training, risk factor management, and psychosocial counseling for people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is beneficial but underused and with substantial disparities in referral, access, and participation. The emergence of new virtual and remote delivery models has the potential to improve access to and participation in CR and ultimately improve outcomes for people with CVD. Although data suggest that new delivery models for CR have safety and efficacy similar to traditional in-person CR, questions remain regarding which participants are most likely to benefit from these models, how and where such programs should be delivered, and their effect on outcomes in diverse populations. In this review, we describe important gaps in evidence, identify relevant research questions, and propose strategies for addressing them. We highlight 4 research priorities: (1) including diverse populations in all CR research; (2) leveraging implementation methodologies to enhance equitable delivery of CR; (3) clarifying which populations are most likely to benefit from virtual and remote CR; and (4) comparing traditional in-person CR with virtual and remote CR in diverse populations using multicenter studies of important clinical, psychosocial, and cost-effectiveness outcomes that are relevant to patients, caregivers, providers, health systems, and payors. By framing these important questions, we hope to advance toward a goal of delivering high-quality CR to as many people as possible to improve outcomes in those with CVD.
PMID: 36649394
ISSN: 1524-4539
CID: 5410682

A risk model for decline in health status after acute myocardial infarction among older adults

Hajduk, Alexandra M; Dodson, John A; Murphy, Terrence E; Chaudhry, Sarwat I
BACKGROUND:Health status is increasingly recognized as an important patient-centered outcome after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Yet drivers of decline in health status after AMI remain largely unknown in older adults. We sought to develop and validate a predictive risk model for health status decline among older adult survivors of AMI. METHODS:Using data from a prospective cohort study conducted from 2013 to 2017 of 3041 patients age ≥75 years hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at 94 U.S. hospitals, we examined a broad array of demographic, clinical, functional, and psychosocial variables for their association with health status decline, defined as a decrease of ≥5 points in the Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component score from hospitalization to 6 months post-discharge. Model selection was performed in logistic regression models of 20 imputed datasets to yield a parsimonious risk prediction model. Model discrimination and calibration were evaluated using c-statistics and calibration plots, respectively. RESULTS:Of the 2571 participants included in the main analyses, 30% of patients experienced health status decline from hospitalization to 6 months post-discharge. The risk model contained 14 factors, 10 associated with higher risk of health status decline (age, pre-existing AMI, pre-existing cancer, pre-existing COPD, pre-existing diabetes, history of falls, presenting Killip class, acute kidney injury, baseline health status, and mobility impairment) and four associated with lower risk of health status decline (male sex, higher hemoglobin, receipt of revascularization, and arrhythmia during hospitalization). The model displayed good discrimination (c-statistic = 0.74 in validation cohort) and calibration (p > 0.05) in both development and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:We used split sampling to develop and validate a risk model for health status decline in older adults after hospitalization for AMI and identified several risk factors that may be modifiable to mitigate the threat of this important patient-centered outcome. External validation of this risk model is warranted.
PMID: 36519774
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5382332

Sarcopenia as a Risk Prediction Tool in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [Comment]

Faye, Adam S; Dodson, John A; Shaukat, Aasma
PMID: 35366304
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5206122

Association Between Copayment Amount and Filling of Medications for Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors in Patients With Heart Failure

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Adhikari, Samrachana; Li, Xiyue; Dodson, John A; Kronish, Ian M; Shah, Binita; Ramatowski, Maggie; Chunara, Rumi; Kozloff, Sam; Blecker, Saul
Background Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) reduce mortality and hospitalization for patients with heart failure. However, relatively high copayments for ARNI may contribute to suboptimal adherence, thus potentially limiting their benefits. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study within a large, multi-site health system. We included patients with: ARNI prescription between November 20, 2020 and June 30, 2021; diagnosis of heart failure or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%; and available pharmacy or pharmacy benefit manager copayment data. The primary exposure was copayment, categorized as $0, $0.01 to $10, $10.01 to $100, and >$100. The primary outcome was prescription fill nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered <80% over 6 months. We assessed the association between copayment and nonadherence using multivariable logistic regression, and nonbinarized proportion of days covered using multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and neighborhood-level covariates. A total of 921 patients met inclusion criteria, with 192 (20.8%) having $0 copayment, 228 (24.8%) with $0.01 to $10 copayment, 206 (22.4%) with $10.01 to $100, and 295 (32.0%) with >$100. Patients with higher copayments had higher rates of nonadherence, ranging from 17.2% for $0 copayment to 34.2% for copayment >$100 (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for copayment of $10.01 to $100 (odds ratio [OR], 1.93 [95% CI, 1.15-3.27], P=0.01) or >$100 (OR, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.63-4.18], P<0.001), as compared with $0 copayment. Similar associations were seen when assessing proportion of days covered as a proportion. Conclusions We found higher rates of not filling ARNI prescriptions among patients with higher copayments, which persisted after multivariable adjustment. Our findings support future studies to assess whether reducing copayments can increase adherence to ARNI and improve outcomes for heart failure.
PMID: 36453634
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5374072

Study design of BETTER-BP: Behavioral economics trial to enhance regulation of blood pressure

Dodson, John A; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Fonceva, Ana; Gutierrez, Yasmin; Shimbo, Daichi; Banco, Darcy; Maidman, Samuel; Olkhina, Ekaterina; Hanley, Kathleen; Lee, Carson; Levy, Natalie K; Adhikari, Samrachana
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Nonadherence to antihypertensive medications remains a persistent problem that leads to preventable morbidity and mortality. Behavioral economic strategies represent a novel way to improve antihypertensive medication adherence, but remain largely untested especially in vulnerable populations which stand to benefit the most. The Behavioral Economics Trial To Enhance Regulation of Blood Pressure (BETTER-BP) was designed in this context, to test whether a digitally-enabled incentive lottery improves antihypertensive adherence and reduces systolic blood pressure (SBP). DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:BETTER-BP is a pragmatic randomized trial conducted within 3 safety-net clinics in New York City: Bellevue Hospital Center, Gouveneur Hospital Center, and NYU Family Health Centers - Park Slope. The trial will randomize 435 patients with poorly controlled hypertension and poor adherence (<80% days adherent) in a 2:1 ratio (intervention:control) to receive either an incentive lottery versus passive monitoring. The incentive lottery is delivered via short messaging service (SMS) text messages that are delivered based on (1) antihypertensive adherence tracked via a wireless electronic monitoring device, paired with (2) a probability of lottery winning with variable incentives and a regret component for nonadherence. The study intervention lasts for 6 months, and ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) will be measured at both 6 and 12 months to evaluate immediate and durable lottery effects. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:BETTER-BP will generate knowledge about whether an incentive lottery is effective in vulnerable populations to improve antihypertensive medication adherence. If successful, this could lead to the implementation of this novel strategy on a larger scale to improve outcomes.
PMID: 36573193
ISSN: 2772-4875
CID: 5395042

Increasing rates of venous thromboembolism among hospitalised patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide analysis

Faye, Adam S; Lee, Kate E; Dodson, John; Chodosh, Joshua; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Wright, Jason D; Friedman, Alexander M; Shaukat, Aasma; Wen, Timothy
BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on national trends remain limited. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To assess national trends in VTE-associated hospitalisations among patients with IBD as well as risk factors for, and mortality associated with, these events METHODS: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000-2018, temporal trends in VTE were assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program with estimates presented as the average annual percent change (AAPC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Between 2000 and 2018, there were 4,859,728 hospitalisations among patients with IBD, with 128,236 (2.6%) having a VTE, and 6352 associated deaths. The rate of VTE among hospitalised patients with IBD increased from 192 to 295 cases per 10,000 hospitalisations (AAPC 2.4%, 95%CI 1.4%, 3.4%, p < 0.001), and remained significant when stratified by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease as well as by deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. On multivariable analysis, increasing age, male sex, UC (aOR: 1.30, 95%CI 1.26, 1.33), identifying as non-Hispanic Black, and chronic corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.22, 95%CI 1.16, 1.29) were associated with an increased risk of a VTE-associated hospitalisation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of VTE-associated hospitalisations are increasing among patients with IBD. Continued efforts need to be placed on education and risk reduction.
PMID: 35879231
ISSN: 1365-2036
CID: 5276292

Adherence and Exercise Capacity Improvements of Patients With Adult Congenital Heart Disease Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation

Sheng, S Peter; Feinberg, Jodi L; Bostrom, John A; Tang, Ying; Sweeney, Greg; Pierre, Alicia; Katz, Edward S; Whiteson, Jonathan H; Haas, François; Dodson, John A; Halpern, Dan G
Background As the number of adults with congenital heart disease increases because of therapeutic advances, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is increasingly being used in this population after cardiac procedures or for reduced exercise tolerance. We aim to describe the adherence and exercise capacity improvements of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) in CR. Methods and Results This retrospective study included patients with ACHD in CR at New York University Langone Rusk Rehabilitation from 2013 to 2020. We collected data on patient characteristics, number of sessions attended, and functional testing results. Pre-CR and post-CR metabolic equivalent task, exercise time, and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. In total, 89 patients with ACHD (mean age, 39.0 years; 54.0% women) participated in CR. Referral indications were reduced exercise tolerance for 42.7% and post-cardiac procedure (transcatheter or surgical) for the remainder. Mean number of sessions attended was 24.2, and 42 participants (47.2%) completed all 36 CR sessions. Among participants who completed the program as well as pre-CR and post-CR functional testing, metabolic equivalent task increased by 1.3 (95% CI, 0.7-1.9; baseline mean, 8.1), exercise time increased by 66.4 seconds (95% CI, 21.4-111.4 seconds; baseline mean, 536.1 seconds), and maximal oxygen uptake increased by 2.5 mL/kg per minute (95% CI, 0.7-4.2 mL/kg per minute; baseline mean, 20.2 mL/kg per minute). Conclusions On average, patients with ACHD who completed CR experienced improvements in exercise capacity. Efforts to increase adherence would allow more patients with ACHD to benefit.
PMID: 35929458
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5288322

Aspirin and statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults

Montgomery, Sophie; Miedema, Michael D; Dodson, John A
The value of primary preventative therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults (age ≥75 years) is less certain than in younger patients. There is a lack of quality evidence in older adults due to underenrolment in pivotal trials. While aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in primary prevention of CVD in older adults, statins may be efficacious. However, it is unclear which patient subgroups may benefit most, and guidelines differ between expert panels. Three relevant geriatric conditions (cognitive impairment, functional impairment and polypharmacy) may influence therapeutic decision making; for example, baseline frailty may affect statin efficacy, and some have advocated for deprescription in this scenario. Evidence regarding statins and incident functional decline are mixed, and vigilance for adverse effects is important, especially in the setting of polypharmacy. However, aspirin has not been shown to affect incident cognitive or functional decline, and its lack of efficacy extends to patients with baseline cognitive impairment or frailty. Ultimately, the utility of primary preventative therapies for CVD in older adults depends on potential lifetime benefit. Rather than basing treatment decisions on absolute risk alone, consideration of comorbidities, polypharmacy and life expectancy should play a significant role in decision making. Coronary calcium score and new tools for risk stratification validated in older adults that account for the competing risk of death may aid in evaluating potential benefits. Given the complexity of therapeutic decisions in this context, shared decision making provides an important framework.
PMID: 34764212
ISSN: 1468-201x
CID: 5050722

Association Between Copay Amount And Medication Adherence For Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors In Patients With Heart Failure [Meeting Abstract]

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Adhikari, Samrachana; Li, Xiyue; Dodson, John A; Kronish, Ian M; Ramatowski, Maggie; Chunara, Rumi; Blecker, Saul
ISSN: 1941-7705
CID: 5263752