Discontinuation of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics for Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery
The Cost Effectiveness of Implementation of a Postoperative Endocrinopathy Management Protocol after Resection of Pituitary Adenomas
Preoperative flow analysis of arteriovenous malformations and obliteration response after stereotactic radiosurgery
OBJECTIVE:Morphological and angioarchitectural features of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have been widely described and associated with outcomes; however, few studies have conducted a quantitative analysis of AVM flow. The authors examined brain AVM flow and transit time on angiograms using direct visual analysis and a computer-based method and correlated these factors with the obliteration response after Gamma Knife radiosurgery. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single institution using a prospective registry of patients managed from January 2013 to December 2019: 71 patients were analyzed using a visual method of flow determination and 38 were analyzed using a computer-based method. After comparison and validation of the two methods, obliteration response was correlated to flow analysis, demographic, angioarchitectural, and dosimetric data. RESULTS:The mean AVM volume was 3.84 cm3 (range 0.64-19.8 cm3), 32 AVMs (45%) were in critical functional locations, and the mean margin radiosurgical dose was 18.8 Gy (range 16-22 Gy). Twenty-seven AVMs (38%) were classified as high flow, 37 (52%) as moderate flow, and 7 (10%) as low flow. Complete obliteration was achieved in 44 patients (62%) at the time of the study; the mean time to obliteration was 28 months for low-flow, 34 months for moderate-flow, and 47 months for high-flow AVMs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors predicting obliteration included AVM nidus volume, age, and flow. Adverse radiation effects were identified in 5 patients (7%), and 67 patients (94%) remained free of any functional deterioration during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:AVM flow analysis and categorization in terms of transit time are useful predictors of the probability of and the time to obliteration. The authors believe that a more quantitative understanding of flow can help to guide stereotactic radiosurgery treatment and set accurate outcome expectations.
Discontinuation of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopic endonasal surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Direct access through the sinuses and nasopharyngeal mucosa in the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) raises concern for a contaminated operative environment and subsequent infection. The reported rate of meningitis in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery in the literature ranges from 0.7 to 3.0% [1, 2]. The only factor identified as being independently associated with meningitis in a statistically significant manner is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak [1-5]. However, many centers performing high volume of EEAs use postoperative antibiotic coverage independent of the presence intraoperative or postoperative CSF leak. Furthermore, while meningitis remains a severe concern, most centers use postoperative gram-positive coverage to prevent toxic shock syndrome caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection in the setting of prolonged nasal packing. There are currently a multitude of approaches regarding perioperative antibiotic coverage in EEAs [1-4]. Given the lack of consensus in the literature and our experience regarding the benefit of discontinuation of prolonged prophylactic antibiotics throughout the breadth of neurosurgical procedures, we sought to analyze the need for postoperative antibiotics in EEAs further. As such, we performed a prospective analysis compared with a retrospective cohort to delineate whether discontinuation of postoperative antibiotics leads to a change in the rate of postoperative infections. The retrospective cohort consisted of patients who underwent an EEA from January 1, 2013 to May 31, 2019. These patients all received postoperative antibiotics while nasal packing was in place (median 7 days). Starting on April 1, 2019 until August 1, 2019, we discontinued postoperative antibiotic use. Patients from this group made up the prospective cohort. The retrospective cohort had 315 patients (66% pituitary macroadenomas vs. 7% microadenomas, 4% meningiomas, 4% craniopharyngiomas, 4% chordomas, and 15% others) while the prospective group had 23 patients (57% pituitary macroadenomas, 30% craniopharyngiomas, 8% meningiomas/chordomas, and 5% others). The primary endpoint was rate of postoperative infections and specifically, meningitis and multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) infections. There was no statistically significant difference in the use of nasal packing (p = 0.085), intraoperative CSF leak (p = 0.133), and postoperative CSF leak (p = 0.507) between the two groups. There was also no significant difference in the number of patients with positive preoperative MSSA and MRSA nasal swabs (p = 0.622). There was a significant decrease in the number of patients discharged with antibiotics (55.1% in the retrospective and 4.5% in the prospective group, p = 0.000). The number of patients with positive blood cultures (p = 0.701) and positive urine cultures (p = 0.691) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference in postoperative CSF infections (p = 0.34) or MDRO infections (0.786) between the two groups. We describe promising preliminary results that demonstrate that discontinuation of postoperative antibiotics in EEAs do not lead to a statistically significant increase in the rate of postoperative CSF or MDRO infections. The previous algorithm for postoperative antibiotic coverage in our center, like many centers, called for gram-positive coverage, which may have contributed to the overall preponderance of gram-negative meningitis cases in this cohort
Role of intraoperative MRI in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery [Meeting Abstract]
The transsphenoidal corridor for pituitary adenoma surgery was established as early as 1906 by Schloffer and was subsequently refined by Cushing throughout the early 20thcentury . The use of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal resections, however, is a relatively contemporary addition to the surgical treatment of pituitary tumors. The morbidity of these cases has decreased over the years in light of advances in intraoperative navigation as well as improvements in endoscope dynamics and surgical instruments. Despite such improvements, a substantial number of patients require repeat surgeries or subsequent radiotherapy for residual and/or recurrent disease. This can be largely attributed to cavernous sinus invasion or suprasellar extension, which pose technical challenges to achieving gross total resections (GTRs). The rate of GTR for pituitary tumors cited in the literature varies from 59-88%.[2-3] The advantage of iMRI is that it provides the surgeon with immediate feedback regarding their progress and ability to safely achieve GTR which, in pituitary surgery, is critical for long term cure. Additionally, although there is concern for increased risk of postoperative endocrine dysfunction, Zhibin et al prove that this is not necessarily the case. In their series, 133 patients who underwent iMRI had higher rates of GTR and did not have a significant difference in postoperative hypopituitarism.  This study includes a combined retrospective and prospective comparative analysis of 238 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor from January 2013 until May 2019. All patients were operated on by one of four experienced neurosurgeons and one of three experienced otolaryngologists. There were 203 patients who did not undergo iMRI and 25 patients who did. A 3 tesla MRI magnet was used in all cases. All intraoperative images were read and interpreted by a senior neuroradiologist at our institution. Amongst the two groups, there was no statistically significant difference in patient age (p = 0.488), tumor size (microadenoma versus macroadenoma, p = 0.878), and primary versus recurrent tumor (p = 0.837). The use of iMRI did not yield a decrease in the length of stay (4.84 days in the no iMRI group and 5 in the iMRI group, p = 0.777). There were zero cases of a return to the OR for residual tumor in the intraoperative MRI group versus the non-MRI group. However, this did not reach statistical significance. This study did not yield a statistically significant difference in GTR (p = 0.75), near total resection (NTR, p = 0.167), or subtotal resection (p = 0.083). This is likely secondary to a low sample size and therefore power in the iMRI group. Finally, there was no significant difference in the number of patients requiring postoperative DDAVP (p = 0.099) or hydrocortisone (p = 0.873) after discharge. Preliminary results reveal a potential benefit of iMRI use to assess for residual disease which can be addressed immediately during the initial operation, thus decreasing the need for re-operations. Furthermore, the ability to correlate intraoperative findings with an intraoperative structure may lead to more precise identification and preservation of normal gland, which can possibly decrease the incidence of postoperative endocrine dysfunction
RAPID DETERIORATION IN A PATIENT WITH SPONTANEOUS OTOGENIC PNEUMOCEPHALUS [Meeting Abstract]
Endovascular and Microsurgical Aneurysm Training in a Chicken Thigh and Leg Pulsatile Model
BACKGROUND:Neurovascular training models include animal models, synthetics, or computer simulation. In vivo models are expensive and require significant resources. Synthetic/computer models do not reflect the elasticity of fresh vessels. We describe an endovascular and microsurgical training model using a chicken thigh/leg. METHODS:20 chicken thigh/leg models were obtained. Angiography was utilized to understand the anatomy. Proximal cannulation with a 5-French catheter was achieved and connected to a hemostatic valve with a pump to simulate pulsatile flow. Aneurysms were created at the thigh-leg junction. For clipping training, 3 types of aneurysms were created to reproduce anatomy seen in middle cerebral, anterior communicating and posterior communicating aneurysms. RESULTS:The average cost per specimen from was $1.70 Â± 0.30. The diameter of the proximal femoral artery (PFA) was 2.4 mm Â± 0.2 mm. The length from the PFA to the aneurysm was 9.5 cm Â± 0.7 cm. Distal catheterization was successful in all cases (n=6). Successful deployment of coils and a stent was achieved under fluoroscopic guidance. Gross over-sizing of coils and other mistakes led to aneurysm rupture. Each examiner performed an exploration of the pulsatile aneurysm, application and reapplication of a variety of clips and then final inspection of branching vessels to confirm patency. CONCLUSIONS:The chicken thigh/leg model provides training opportunities in microsurgical suturing, endovascular techniques for aneurysm obliteration, and microsurgical reconstruction of aneurysms. It combines affordability, time efficiency and reproducibility. Further studies measuring improvement in technical aneurysm management and comparison to other training models are warranted.
Quality improvement in endoscopic endonasal surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Surgical resection of pituitary adenomas is associated with a 10 to 30% rate of temporary diabetes insipidus with ~50% resolving within 1 week and 80% resolving at 3 months. Adrenal insufficiency occurs in ~ 5 % of patients and can result in an Addisonian crisis if left undiagnosed postoperatively.  Many studies have been performed looking at readmission rates after pituitary surgery. A review of over 1,200 cases demonstrated a readmission rate of 8.5% with the most common cause being hyponatremia (29.5%). To reduce the rate of readmission for hyponatremia, some groups have demonstrated the effective use of outpatient fluid restriction criteria during the first week post-op. These guidelines are intended for the management of standard postoperative hormonal fluctuations which do not necessitate endocrine consultation during hospitalization.
Objective(s): Retrospectively evaluate patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal resection of pituitary adenomas to identify areas for quality improvement through the development of more standardized postoperative guidelines.
Method(s): A retrospective review of 75 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of pituitary adenomas at a single academic center from 2013 to 2018. We evaluated the average length of stay, number of laboratory studies performed, need for hormone supplementation long term and short term, rate of gross-total resection, rate of cerebrospinal fluid leak, rate of infection, and 30-day readmission rate ([Table 1]). From this, we have developed a change in guidelines aimed at reducing length of stay, redundant laboratory studies, and reduced rate of readmission.
Conclusion(s): Although our current outcomes for resection of pituitary adenoma are on par with published data, we have identified areas of possible quality improvement which have since been implemented
Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) Antibodies in a Patient with Ataxia, Diplopia, and an Enhancing Cerebellar Lesion [Meeting Abstract]
DETECTION OF TERT MUTATIONS IN CELL-FREE CIRCULATING TUMOR DNA (cTDNA) OF GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS USING DROPLET DIGITAL PCR [Meeting Abstract]