Invasive carcinoma arising in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a matched control study with conventional pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological features of invasive carcinomas arising in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) by histological subtype of the invasive component and to compare the outcomes of these patients to a cohort of matched patients with conventional ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. BACKGROUND:Two distinct histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas arising in IPMNs have been described, colloid carcinoma and tubular carcinoma. Previous reports have suggested prognostic differences between these 2 subtypes but a matched comparison of colloid carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and conventional pancreatic adenocarcinoma has not been reported. METHODS:The clinicopathological variables of 59 patients resected for an invasive component of IPMN were analyzed with detailed pathologic review of histopathologic subtype (colloid carcinoma and tubular carcinoma). Using a postresection pancreatic adenocarcinoma nomogram, patients with either tubular or colloid carcinoma were matched on a 1:1 basis with patients resected for conventional ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Clinicopathological factors and overall outcome was analyzed between the matched groups. RESULTS:Fifty-nine patients underwent resection for IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma (IPMN-INV). The estimated 3- and 5-year survival rates were 76% and 68%, respectively. Tubular carcinoma was present in 35 patients (59%) and 24 patients (41%) had colloid carcinoma. Tubular carcinoma subtype [hazard ratio (HR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.6] and the presence of positive regional lymph nodes (HR 3.2 95% CI 1.2-8.2) were clinicopathological factors predictive of decreased survival by multivariate analysis. The 5-year estimated survival rates for tubular carcinoma and colloid carcinoma were 55% and 87%, respectively (P = 0.01). When compared with patients with conventional ductal pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma resected during the same time period matched by a prognostic nomogram, patients with colloid carcinoma had a significantly longer survival outcome compared with patients with conventional adenocarcinoma (P = 0.0001). By contrast, survival after resection between patients with the tubular subtype (3-year estimated survival, 61%) and the matched group with conventional adenocarcinoma (3-year estimated survival, 21%) (P = 0.87) was not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, the colloid carcinoma histological subtype of invasive IPMN had a more statistically favorable survival outcome than the tubular subtype. Patients with invasive tubular IPMN had no statistically significant difference in survival as matched patients with conventional ductal pancreatic carcinoma.
Cystic lesions of the pancreas: changes in the presentation and management of 1,424 patients at a single institution over a 15-year time period
BACKGROUND:Cystic lesions of the pancreas are being identified more frequently, and a selective approach to resection is now recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the change in presentation and management of pancreatic cystic lesions evaluated at a single institution over 15 years. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A prospectively maintained registry of patients evaluated between 1995 and 2010 for the ICD-9 diagnosis of pancreatic cyst was reviewed. The 539 patients managed from 1995 to 2005 were compared with the 885 patients managed from 2005 to 2010. RESULTS:A total of 1,424 patients were evaluated, including 1,141 with follow-up >6 months. Initial management (within 6 months of first assessment) was operative in 422 patients (37%) and nonoperative in 719 patients (63%). Operative mortality in patients initially submitted to resection was 0.7% (n = 3). Median radiographic follow-up in patients initially managed nonoperatively was 28 months (range 6 to 175 months). Patients followed radiographically were more likely to have cysts that were asymptomatic (72% versus 49%, p < 0.001), smaller (1.5 versus 3 cm, p < 0.001), without solid component (94% versus 68%, p < 0.001), and without main pancreatic duct dilation (88% versus 61%, p < 0.001). Changes prompting subsequent operative treatment occurred in 47 patients (6.5%), with adenocarcinoma identified in 8 (17%) and pancreatic endocrine neoplasm in 4 (8.5%). Thus, of the 719 patients initially managed nonoperatively, invasive malignancy was identified in 12 (1.7%), with adenocarcinoma seen in 1.1%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cystic lesions of the pancreas are being identified more frequently, yet are less likely to present with concerning features of malignancy. Carefully selected patients managed nonoperatively had a risk of malignancy that was equivalent to the risk of operative mortality in those patients who initially underwent resection.
Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic celiac plexus block in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The efficacy of laparoscopic celiac plexus block (CPB) in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer has not been reported. METHODS:Patients with elevated pain scores scheduled for laparoscopy for diagnosis/staging of unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were eligible. The study was designed to evaluate 20 consecutive patients with validated quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-PAN26) and validated pain assessment tools [Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)]. Questionnaires were obtained preoperatively, and postoperatively at 1, 4, and 8Â weeks. Laparoscopic CPB was performed by bilateral injection of 20Â cc 50% alcohol utilizing a recently described laparoscopic technique. Functional and symptom scoring was performed by EORTC scoring manual. RESULTS:Median age was 61Â years (range 42-80Â years), and mean preoperative pain score [worst in 24Â h on 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS)] was 7.8 [standard deviation (SD) 1.6]. Median total operative time (laparoscopyÂ +Â biopsyÂ +Â CBP) was 57Â min (range 29-92Â min), and all patients except one were discharged on day of surgery. No major complications occurred. EORTC functional scales did not change significantly during the postoperative period. EORTC symptomatic pain scores decreased significantly. These findings were also observed in the BPI, with significant decreases in visual analogue score for reported mean (preoperative versus week 4, mean: 5.7 versus 2.7; pÂ <Â 0.01) and worst (preoperative versus week 4, mean: 7.8 versus 5.1; pÂ <Â 0.01) pain during a 24-h period. CONCLUSIONS:This study documents the efficacy of laparoscopic CPB. The procedure was associated with minimal morbidity, brief operative times, outpatient management, and reduction in pain scores similar to that reported with other approaches to celiac neurolysis.
Electronic synoptic operative reporting: assessing the reliability and completeness of synoptic reports for pancreatic resection
BACKGROUND:Electronic synoptic operative reports (E-SORs) have replaced dictated reports at many institutions, but whether E-SORs adequately document the components and findings of an operation has received limited study. This study assessed the reliability and completeness of E-SORs for pancreatic surgery developed at our institution. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:An attending surgeon and surgical fellow prospectively and independently completed an E-SOR after each of 112 major pancreatic resections (78 proximal, 29 distal, and 5 central) over a 10-month period (September 2008 to June 2009). Reliability was assessed by calculating the interobserver agreement between attending physician and fellow reports. Completeness was assessed by comparing E-SORs to a case-matched (surgeon and procedure) historical control of dictated reports, using a 39-item checklist developed through an internal and external query of 13 high-volume pancreatic surgeons. RESULTS:Interobserver agreement between attending and fellow was moderate to very good for individual categorical E-SOR items (kappa = 0.65 to 1.00, p < 0.001 for all items). Compared with dictated reports, E-SORs had significantly higher completeness checklist scores (mean 88.8 +/- 5.4 vs 59.6 +/- 9.2 [maximum possible score, 100], p < 0.01) and were available in patients' electronic records in a significantly shorter interval of time (median 0.5 vs 5.8 days from case end, p < 0.01). The mean time taken to complete E-SORs was 4.0 +/- 1.6 minutes per case. CONCLUSIONS:E-SORs for pancreatic surgery are reliable, complete in data collected, and rapidly available, all of which support their clinical implementation. The inherent strengths of E-SORs offer real promise of a new standard for operative reporting and health communication.