Prognostic Factors for Non-anastomotic Biliary Strictures Following Adult Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The development of non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) following orthotopic adult liver transplantation (OLT) is associated with significant morbidity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify all prognostic factors for the development of NAS. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of the included studies. Using the random-effects model, we calculated the weighted pooled odds ratios (OR), mean differences (MD), hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the risk factors. RESULTS:Based on 19 international studies that included a total of 8269 adult LT patients, we calculated an 8% overall incidence of NAS. In this study, 7 potential prognostic factors were associated with a statistically significant hazard ratio for NAS in pooled analyses including (1) DCD donors compared to DBD donors (2) PSC as an indication for a liver transplant (3) Roux-en-Y bile duct reconstruction compared to duct-to-duct reconstruction (4) hepatic artery thrombosis (5) longer cold ischemia time (6) longer warm ischemia time (7) and total operative times. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified 7 prognostic factors for the development of NAS following OLT. These findings might lay the groundwork for development of diagnostic algorithms to better risk stratify patients at risk for development of NAS.
Standardization of EUS imaging and reporting in high-risk individuals of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: consensus statement of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Consortium (PRECEDE)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease most often diagnosed after local progression or metastatic dissemination, precluding resection and resulting in a high mortality rate. For individuals with elevated personal risk of the development of pancreatic cancer, EUS is a frequently used advanced imaging and diagnostic modality. However, there is variability in the expertise and definition of EUS findings among gastroenterologists, as well as lack of standardized reporting of relevant findings at the time of examination. Adoption of standardized EUS reporting, using a universally accepted and agreed upon terminology, is needed. METHODS:A consensus statement designed to create a standardized reporting template was authored by a multidisciplinary group of experts in pancreatic diseases that includes gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons, oncologists, and geneticists. This statement was developed using a modified Delphi process as part of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Consortium (PRECEDE) and >75% agreement was required to reach consensus. RESULTS:We identified reporting elements and present standardized reporting templates for EUS indications, procedural data, EUS image capture, and descriptors of findings, tissue sampling, and for postprocedural assessment of adequacy. CONCLUSIONS:Adoption of this standardized EUS reporting template should improve consistency in clinical decision making for individuals with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer by providing complete and accurate reporting of pancreatic abnormalities. Standardization will also help to facilitate research and clinical trial design by using clearly defined and consistent imaging descriptions, thus allowing for comparison of results across different centers.
ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND-GUIDED THROUGH-THE-NEEDLE BIOPSY OF PANCREATIC CYSTIC LESIONS: DIAGNOSTIC OUTCOMES AND ADVERSE EVENTS [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) are increasingly identified on cross-sectional imaging. Types include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN), serous cystadenoma (SCA), solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPT) and pseudocysts. Given the risk of malignancy associated with MCN and IPMN with high risk features, accurate PCL diagnosis is essential. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) of cyst fluid for cytology remains important for the classification of PCL, but is limited by the ability to obtain a sufficient sample and cellularity of fluid. The specificity for malignant cytology is 94%, but sensitivity remains low at 51%. Recently, introduction of a novel microforceps biopsy (MFB) device (Moray Micro Forceps, US Endoscopy, Mentor, OH) has enabled EUS-guided through-the-needle biopsies of PCL through a 19-gauge needle. The aim of this study is to compare the technical success and diagnostic yield for PCL using MFB versus cyst fluid studies alone, along with identifying adverse events associated with MFB.
Method(s): We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with PCL diagnosed by cross sectional imaging undergoing EUS-guided FNA with MFB at 2 tertiary academic centers from November 2016 to November 2019. FNA of PCL was performed and cyst fluid was sent for cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, and mutational analysis. Cyst biopsy was performed using MFB.
Result(s): 14 patients were included. 71% were female. Median age was 60 years. Location of cysts in pancreas were head (4), body (6), and tail (4). MFB was technically successful in 12 of 14 cases (yield 86%) including 1 case where no cyst fluid was able to be obtained. There were no reported adverse outcomes (bleeding, pancreatitis, perforation, infection, abdominal pain). MFB diagnosed IPMN in 2 patients, neither of which were identified by cytology but were identified by fluid mutational analysis; MCN in 2 patients, 1 of which was identified by cytology; and SCA in 1 patient where cytology was concerning for a mucinous lesion. Both MFB and cytology were concerning for pseudocyst in 1 patient who ultimately was found to have MCN.
Discussion(s): The technical success of MFB is high and is associated with increased overall diagnostic yield without significant adverse events. For distinguishing PCL types, MFB provided additive diagnostic information to fluid cytology in 4 of 14 patients in our study. Including mutational analysis which identified IPMN in 2 patients where cytology was negative, MFB still provided further diagnostic information in 2 additional patients. This study suggests that the addition of MFB to EUS-guided sampling for cytology, CEA and mutational analysis further augments PCL diagnosis. Future studies should elucidate the role of MFB in combination with mutational analysis. [Formula presented]
THE EFFICACY, SAFETY, AND LONG-TERM DURABILITY OF LUMEN-APPOSING METAL STENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BENIGN LUMINAL STRICTURES [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Lumen-apposing self-expandable metal stents (LAMS) have transformed the management of pancreatic fluid collections over the last two decades. There has since been significant interest in expanding the utility of LAMS for additional therapies such as the management of benign luminal strictures. However, there remains little data on their efficacy and safety when used for this indication. The goal of this study was to define the technical success, clinical success, and complication rates of LAMS when used in the management of benign strictures Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter evaluation of the safety, efficacy, and long-term clinical durability of LAMS in the treatment of benign strictures. The study took place between June 2018 and November 2019. Data collection included demographic information, indication, stent size, use of concurrent balloon dilation including dilation diameter, stent stabilization technique, intra-procedure and post-procedure complications, clinical improvement, and post-procedure follow up outcomes.
Result(s): 30 patients underwent placement of LAMS for a benign luminal stricture, with one having two stents placed during the index procedure at separate areas of stenoses resulting in a total of 31 stents placed. In total, 19 stents were 15 x 10 mm and 12 stents were 20 x 10 mm. No intra-procedural complications were noted. The technical success of deployment was 100%. Clinical resolution of symptoms was present in 25 (83%) patients. Of the patients who experienced clinical improvement, 17 underwent stent removal after an average of 6.4 weeks, and clinical recurrence occurred in 7 (41%) patients. The mean time to recurrence of symptoms after stent removal was 7 weeks. Univariate subgroup analysis revealed 15 x 10 mm stents were associated with clinical improvement (OR 12.86, 95% CI: 1.27-130.57, p 0.031). Each patient who did not clinically improve developed pain (3) or stent migration (2). In total 11 (37%) patients developed minor post-procedure adverse event. Stent migration was seen in 5 (17%) cases. Bleeding and pain were noted in 1 (3%) and 7 (23%) patients, respectively. Ulceration was found in 4 patients.
Conclusion(s): LAMS is a durable, safe option for patients with benign luminal strictures. Overall technical success was 100% and clinical success was 83%. The data also suggests better clinical outcomes with 15 x 10 mm stents, when compared to 20 x 10 mm stents. Pain is the most common adverse event but easily managed. [Formula presented]
Relationship between patient symptoms and endosonographic findings in chronic pancreatitis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) relies on the presence of up to nine distinct pancreatic parenchymal and ductal abnormalities, without considering other factors such as age, duration of disease or clinical symptoms. Our goal was to examine the impact of patient symptoms on EUS findings in patients with CP. METHODS: All patients with previously suspected CP who had symptomatic disease referred to our medical center for pancreatic EUS were identified. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their clinical symptoms--pain only and steatorrhea +/- pain. Groups were compared using two-tailed comparative testing. RESULTS: 53 patients (group 1) with pain only and 27 patients with steatorrhea +/- pain (group 2) were identified. Patients in group 1 were younger and more likely female. Compared to group 1 (pain only), group 2 (steatorrhea +/- pain) had more total (5.37 vs. 3.28, p < 0.01) and ductal abnormalities (2.56 vs. 0.83, p < 0.01), although the number of parenchymal abnormalities between groups 1 and 2 (2.45 vs. 2.88, p = 0.07) was not different. CONCLUSION: The presence of steatorrhea +/- pain in patients with CP undergoing pancreatic EUS examination is associated with more total and ductal abnormalities. Stratification based on underlying patient symptoms may be valuable as an adjunct to endosonographic findings in making or excluding the diagnosis of CP.
Sublingual hyoscyamine spray as premedication for colonoscopy: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial
BACKGROUND: Colonic motility and spasm during colonoscopy may affect duration and quality of the examination as well as patient comfort during and after the procedure. Previous studies assessing the utility of antispasmodic agents in colonoscopy demonstrated conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sublingual hyoscyamine spray (IB-Stat, Inkine Pharmaceutical) on the performance of colonoscopy. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing elective colonoscopy were randomized in a double-blind study to receive .25 mg sublingual hyoscyamine spray (n = 50: 25 men and 25 women, mean age 60) or placebo spray (n = 50: 23 men and 27 women, mean age 56) 15 to 30 minutes before the procedure. Parameters measured included time required to reach the cecum, total procedure time, endoscopist perception of colonic motility and difficulty of the procedure, and patient assessment of discomfort after the procedure. The latter parameters were measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale. A single endoscopist performed all of the procedures. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, procedural difficulty scores and colonic motility scores were significantly lower in the hyoscyamine group compared with placebo (differences of 5.589 mm [P = .047] and 5.685 mm [P = .040], respectively). Mean time to cecal intubation and percentage of patients with discomfort were slightly lower in the hyoscyamine group (5.68 minutes/48%) compared with placebo (5.92 minutes/57.1%), although the differences were not statistically significant (P = .57 and P = .36, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Procedural difficulty and colonic motility scores were significantly lower in subjects who received sublingual hyoscyamine before colonoscopy
Patient preference and recall of results of EUS-guided FNA
BACKGROUND: There are no clear guidelines regarding the best way, in terms of timing and setting, to deliver results to patients who undergo EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) of suspected pancreatic masses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study (1) whether patients undergoing EUS-FNA prefer to receive preliminary results immediately after the procedure or at a later date, after final results are known; and (2) to assess the accuracy of patients' recollection of information given to them regarding their FNA diagnosis. DESIGN: We enrolled patients presenting to our endoscopy center for EUS-FNA of suspected pancreatic masses and obtained data through 4 pilot surveys. SETTINGS: University-based endoscopy center. PATIENTS: Sixty patients who were referred for EUS-FNA of suspected pancreatic masses. RESULTS: A total of 57 of 59 patients (96.6%) wanted preliminary results the same day as the procedure. Twenty-eight of 60 (42.7%) knew they were having a biopsy, and 42 of 60 (70%) knew cancer was suspected. Of those who received preliminary results, 31 of 41 (75%) remembered the diagnosis correctly the next day, and 32 of 38 (84%) remembered the diagnosis correctly 1 week later. LIMITATIONS: Single-center pilot study. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of our patients wished to receive preliminary results the same day as the procedure. Although most patients remembered results correctly, 25% of patients did not remember the correct diagnosis the next day. Further work is needed to improve patient's understanding of the reasons for the EUS-FNA and recall of preliminary EUS-FNA results
Wire-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage by using a modified needle knife and therapeutic echoendoscope
BACKGROUND: Various methods to drain pancreatic pseudocysts by using EUS guidance have been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: A new drainage technique is described that uses a modified needle knife advanced over a guidewire positioned in the pseudocyst by EUS guidance. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Consecutive subjects from December 1, 2002, to January 10, 2005, with symptomatic pseudocysts in whom EUS-guided drainage was attempted. INTERVENTIONS: By using a therapeutic linear echoendoscope, a 19-gauge aspiration needle was inserted into the pseudocyst. A guidewire was placed through the needle, and a needle knife with the cutting wire protruding and bent was advanced over the guidewire to contact the stomach mucosa. The needle knife was then advanced by using electrocautery into the pseudocyst. The cystenterostomy was dilated by using a balloon over the guidewire. One to 4 stents were placed through the tract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Successful pseudocyst drainage. RESULTS: A total of 21 of 23 patients underwent technically successful pseudocyst drainage. One patient had self-limited hypotension during the procedure. Another patient had free intraperitoneal air after the procedure but correct stent placement. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective analysis, small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary experience, wire-guided pseudocyst drainage with a modified needle knife appears effective and safe while allowing for a more controlled pseudocyst puncture
Sacral spinal nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: A viable therapeutic option for refractory incontinence [Comment]