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Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group

Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Sanford, Robert A; Heier, Linda A; Sposto, Richard; Burger, Peter C; Yates, Allan J; Holmes, Emiko J; Kun, Larry E
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system neoplasms are the most common solid tumors in children, and more than 40% are low-grade gliomas. Variable locations, extent of resection, postoperative neurodiagnostic evaluation, and histology have confounded therapy and outcome. OBJECTIVES: To investigate disease control and survival after surgery. METHODS: A prospective natural history trial from 1991 to 1996 produced a subset of patients with low-grade gliomas managed by primary surgery and subsequent observation. Patients were evaluable if eligibility, tumor location, and extent of resection were confirmed by pathological diagnosis, preoperative and postoperative imaging, and the surgeon's report. Primary end points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and postprogression survival. RESULTS: Of 726 patients enrolled, 518 were fully evaluable for analysis. The 5- and 8-year OS rates were 97% +/- 0.8% and 96% +/- 0.9%, respectively, and PFS rates were 80% +/- 1.8% and 78% +/- 2.0%. In univariate analyses, histological type, extent of residual tumor, and disease site were significantly associated with PFS and OS. In multivariate analysis, gross total resection (GTR) without residual disease was the predominant predictor of PFS. In patients with limited residual disease, 56% were free of progression at 5 years. CONCLUSION: GTR should be the goal when it can be achieved with an acceptable functional outcome. The variable rate of progression after incomplete resection highlights the need for new predictors of tumor behavior
PMID: 21368693
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 137059

Efficacy and safety of radical resection of primary and recurrent craniopharyngiomas in 86 children

Elliott, Robert E; Hsieh, Kevin; Hochm, Tsivia; Belitskaya-Levy, Ilana; Wisoff, Jessica; Wisoff, Jeffrey H
OBJECT: Optimal treatment of primary and recurrent craniopharyngiomas remains controversial. Radical resection and limited resection plus radiation therapy yield similar rates of disease control and overall survival. The data are much less clear for recurrent tumors. The authors report their experience with radical resection of both primary and recurrent craniopharyngiomas in children and compare the outcomes between the 2 groups. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 86 children younger than 21 years of age who underwent a total of 103 operations for craniopharyngioma between 1986 and 2008; these were performed by the senior author. The goal was resection with curative intent in all patients. Two patients were lost to follow-up and were excluded from analysis. The mean age at the time of surgery was 9.6 years, and the mean follow-up was 9.0 years. RESULTS: All 57 children with primary tumors underwent gross-total resection (GTR). A GTR was achieved in significantly fewer children with recurrent tumors (18 [62%] of 29). There were 3 perioperative deaths (3%). Tumor recurred after GTR in 14 (20%) of 71 patients. Overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly better in patients with primary tumors at time of presentation to the authors' institution. There were no significant differences in the neurological, endocrinological, visual, or functional outcomes between patients with primary and those with recurrent tumors. Factors negatively affecting overall survival and progression-free survival include subtotal resection (recurrent tumors only), tumor size >or= 5 cm, or presence of hydrocephalus or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Prior radiation therapy and increasing tumor size were both risk factors for incomplete resection at reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: In the hands of surgeons with experience with craniopharyngiomas, the authors believe that radical resection at presentation offers the best chance of disease control and potential cure with acceptable morbidity. While GTR does not preclude recurrence and is more difficult to achieve in recurrent tumors, especially large and previously irradiated tumors, radical resection is still possible in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas with morbidity similar to that of primary tumors
PMID: 20043735
ISSN: 1933-0715
CID: 106277

Role of diffusion tensor imaging in resection of thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma [Case Report]

Moshel, Yaron A; Elliott, Robert E; Monoky, David J; Wisoff, Jeffrey H
OBJECT: The choice of surgical approach during resection of a thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is dictated by the location of the displaced normal thalamus and posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and white matter tractography can identify the location of the PLIC in relation to the tumor and may be useful in planning the operative trajectory. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to localize the PLIC on preoperative MR imaging in 6 children undergoing resection of thalamic JPAs. After review of the standard T2-weighted MR imaging sequences, the anticipated position of the PLIC was determined. This result was compared with the location of the PLIC determined by a blinded radiologist with the use of DT imaging. The utility of DT imaging in determining the surgical approach to a thalamic JPA, degree of resection, and neurological outcomes were all evaluated. RESULTS: Diffusion tensor imaging confirmed the expected location of the PLIC as approximated on conventional T2-weighted images in all 6 cases. In 1 patient in particular, unexpected medial deviation of the PLIC was identified, and this proved useful in tailoring the approach to a more lateral trajectory. Gross-total resection of all cystic and solid tumor components was confirmed on postoperative imaging in all cases. All patients experienced mild to moderate worsening of neurological status immediately following resection, but 4 of 6 patients were back to their preoperative baseline at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion tensor imaging and white matter tractography successfully identified the white matter fibers emanating from the precentral gyrus within the PLIC in children with thalamic JPAs prior to surgery. Diffusion tensor imaging served as a valuable tool for stereotactic planning of operative approaches to thalamic JPAs. Localizing the position of the PLIC helped minimize potential neurological morbidity and facilitated gross-total resection
PMID: 19951034
ISSN: 1933-0715
CID: 105652

Safety and effectiveness of the assessment and treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

Williams, Michael A; Nagel, Sean J; Golomb, James; Jensen, Hailey; Dasher, Nickolas A; Holubkov, Richard; Edwards, Richard J; Luciano, Mark G; Zwimpfer, Thomas J; Katzen, Heather; Moghekar, Abhay; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; McKhann, Guy M; Hamilton, Mark G
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe the processes and outcomes associated with patients at five sites in the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (AHCRN) who had undergone evaluation and treatment for suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and had 1-year postoperative follow-up. METHODS:Subjects with possible iNPH who had been prospectively enrolled in the AHCRN registry between November 19, 2014, and December 31, 2018, were evaluated by CSF drainage via either lumbar puncture or external lumbar drainage, consistent with recommendations of the international iNPH guidelines. Standardized clinical evaluations of gait, cognition, urinary symptoms, depression, and functional outcomes were conducted at baseline, before and after CSF drainage, and at 4-month intervals after shunt surgery. Complications of CSF drainage and shunt surgery were recorded. RESULTS:Seventy-four percent (424/570) of patients with possible iNPH had CSF drainage, and 46% of them (193/424) underwent shunt surgery. The mean change in gait velocity with CSF drainage was 0.18 m/sec in patients who underwent shunt surgery versus 0.08 m/sec in patients who did not. For shunt surgery patients, gait velocity increased by 54% from 0.67 m/sec before CSF drainage to 0.96 m/sec 8-12 months after surgery, and 80% of patients had an increase of at least 0.1 m/sec by the first postoperative visit. Evaluation of cognition, urinary symptoms, depression, and functional outcomes also revealed improvement after shunt surgery. Of 193 patients who had undergone shunt surgery, 176 (91%) had no complications and 17 (9%) had 28 complications. Eleven patients (6%) had 14 serious complications that resulted in the need for surgery or an extended hospital stay. The 30-day reoperation rate was 3%. CONCLUSIONS:Using criteria recommended by the international iNPH guidelines, the authors found that evaluation and treatment of iNPH are safe and effective. Testing with CSF drainage and treatment with shunt surgery are associated with a high rate of sustained improvement and a low rate of complications for iNPH in the 1st year after shunt surgery. Patients who had undergone shunt surgery for iNPH experienced improvement in gait, cognitive function, bladder symptoms, depression, and functional outcome measures. Gait velocity, which is an easily measured, objective, continuous variable, should be used as a standard outcome measure to test a patient's response to CSF drainage and shunt surgery in iNPH.
PMID: 35276651
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5183662

Cognitive and gait outcomes after primary endoscopic third ventriculostomy in adults with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus

Zwimpfer, Thomas J; Salterio, Nicholas; Williams, Michael A; Holubkov, Richard; Katzen, Heather; Luciano, Mark G; Moghekar, Abhay; Nagel, Sean J; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Golomb, James; McKhann, Guy M; Edwards, Richard J; Hamilton, Mark G
OBJECTIVE:The object of this study was to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of primary endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) on cognition and gait in adults with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. METHODS:Patients were prospectively accrued through the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network patient registry. Patients with previously untreated congenital or acquired obstructive hydrocephalus were included in this study. Gait velocity was assessed using a 10-m walk test. Global cognition was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Only patients with documented pre- and post-ETV gait analysis and/or pre- and post-ETV MoCA were included. RESULTS:A total of 74 patients had undergone primary ETV, 42 of whom were analyzed. The remaining 32 patients were excluded, as they could not complete both pre- and post-ETV assessments. The mean age of the 42 patients, 19 (45.2%) of whom were female, was 51.9 ± 17.1 years (range 19-79 years). Most patients were White (37 [88.1%]), and the remainder were Asian. Surgical complications were minor. Congenital etiologies occurred in 31 patients (73.8%), with aqueductal stenosis in 23 of those patients (54.8%). The remaining 11 patients (26.2%) had acquired cases. The gait short-term follow-up cohort (mean 4.7 ± 4.1 months, 35 patients) had a baseline median gait velocity of 0.9 m/sec (IQR 0.7-1.3 m/sec) and a post-ETV median velocity of 1.3 m/sec (IQR 1.1-1.4 m/sec). Gait velocity significantly improved post-ETV with a median within-patient change of 0.3 m/sec (IQR 0.0-0.6 m/sec, p < 0.001). Gait velocity improvements were sustained in the long term (mean 14 ± 2.8 months, 12 patients) with a baseline median velocity of 0.7 m/sec (IQR 0.6-1.3 m/sec), post-ETV median of 1.3 m/sec (IQR 1.1-1.7 m/sec), and median within-patient change of 0.4 m/sec (IQR 0.2-0.6 m/sec, p < 0.001). The cognitive short-term follow-up cohort (mean 4.6 ± 4.0 months, 38 patients) had a baseline median MoCA total score (MoCA TS) of 24/30 (IQR 23-27) that improved to 26/30 (IQR 24-28) post-ETV. The median within-patient change was +1 point (IQR 0-2 points, p < 0.001). However, this change is not clinically significant. The cognitive long-term follow-up cohort (mean 14 ± 3.1 months, 15 patients) had a baseline median MoCA TS of 23/30 (IQR 22-27), which improved to 26/30 (IQR 25-28) post-ETV. The median within-patient change was +2 points (IQR 1-3 points, p = 0.007), which is both statistically and clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS:Primary ETV can safely improve symptoms of gait and cognitive dysfunction in adults with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Gait velocity and global cognition were significantly improved, and the worsening of either was rare following ETV.
PMID: 34534954
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5178342

Epilepsy surgery in infants up to 3 months of age: Safety, feasibility, and outcomes: A multicenter, multinational study

Roth, Jonathan; Constantini, Shlomi; Ekstein, Margaret; Weiner, Howard L; Tripathi, Manjari; Chandra, Poodipedi Sarat; Cossu, Massimo; Rizzi, Michele; Bollo, Robert J; Machado, Hélio Rubens; Santos, Marcelo Volpon; Keating, Robert F; Oluigbo, Chima O; Rutka, James T; Drake, James M; Jallo, George I; Shimony, Nir; Treiber, Jeffrey M; Consales, Alessandro; Mangano, Francesco T; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Teresa Hidalgo, Eveline; Bingaman, William E; Gupta, Ajay; Erdemir, Gozde; Sundar, Swetha J; Benifla, Mony; Shapira, Vladimir; Lam, Sandi K; Fallah, Aria; Maniquis, Cassia A B; Tisdall, Martin; Chari, Aswin; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Blount, Jeffrey P; Dorfmüller, Georg; Uliel-Sibony, Shimrit
OBJECTIVE:Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) during the first few months of life is challenging and necessitates aggressive treatment, including surgery. Because the most common causes of DRE in infancy are related to extensive developmental anomalies, surgery often entails extensive tissue resections or disconnection. The literature on "ultra-early" epilepsy surgery is sparse, with limited data concerning efficacy controlling the seizures, and safety. The current study's goal is to review the safety and efficacy of ultra-early epilepsy surgery performed before the age of 3 months. METHODS:To achieve a large sample size and external validity, a multinational, multicenter retrospective study was performed, focusing on epilepsy surgery for infants younger than 3 months of age. Collected data included epilepsy characteristics, surgical details, epilepsy outcome, and complications. RESULTS:Sixty-four patients underwent 69 surgeries before the age of 3 months. The most common pathologies were cortical dysplasia (28), hemimegalencephaly (17), and tubers (5). The most common procedures were hemispheric surgeries (48 procedures). Two cases were intentionally staged, and one was unexpectedly aborted. Nearly all patients received blood products. There were no perioperative deaths and no major unexpected permanent morbidities. Twenty-five percent of patients undergoing hemispheric surgeries developed hydrocephalus. Excellent epilepsy outcome (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] grade I) was achieved in 66% of cases over a median follow-up of 41 months (19-104 interquartile range [IQR]). The number of antiseizure medications was significantly reduced (median 2 drugs, 1-3 IQR, p < .0001). Outcome was not significantly associated with the type of surgery (hemispheric or more limited resections). SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Epilepsy surgery during the first few months of life is associated with excellent seizure control, and when performed by highly experienced teams, is not associated with more permanent morbidity than surgery in older infants. Thus surgical treatment should not be postponed to treat DRE in very young infants based on their age.
PMID: 34128544
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 4911572

Pilot study of a multi-center, randomized controlled trial of shunt surgery in iNPH [Meeting Abstract]

Malm, J; Hamilton, M G; Holubkov, R; Nagel, S; Wisoff, J; McKhann, G; Zwimpfer, T; Edwards, R; Moghekar, A; Eklund, A; Golomb, J; Katzen, H; Dasher, N; Williams, M A; Luciano, M
Background: To describe preliminary results of a multi-center, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of shunt surgery in INPH.
Method(s): Five sites randomized 18 patients scheduled for ventriculoperitoneal shunting based on CSF-drainage response. Patients were randomized to a Codman Certas Plus valve with SiphonGuard at either setting 4 (Active, N=9) or setting 8/virtual off (Placebo, N=9). Patients and assessors were blinded to the shunt setting. Outcomes included 10-meter gait velocity, cognitive function, and bladder activity scores. The prespecified primary analysis compared changes in 4-month gait velocity in the Active versus Placebo groups. After the 4 months follow up, all shunts were opened, i.e., adjusted to setting 4 whereafter patients underwent 8 and 12-month post-surgical assessment. At the 8-month follow-up, the Placebo group had had an open shunt for 4 months and the Active group for 8 months.
Result(s): At 4-months, gait velocity increased by 0.28+/-0.28m/s in the Active Group and 0.04+/-0.17m/s in the Placebo Group (p=0.071). Overactive Bladder (OAB-q) scores improved in the Active versus Placebo groups (p=0.007). At 8 months, Placebo gait velocity increased by 0.36+/-0.27m/s and was comparable to the Active Group (0.40+/-0.20m/s p=0.56).
Conclusion(s): This study shows a trend suggesting gait velocity improves more at an Active shunt setting than a Placebo shunt setting and demonstrates the feasibility of a placebo-controlled trial in iNPH
ISSN: 2045-8118
CID: 5157812

Radiologic response to MEK inhibition in a patient with a WNT-activated craniopharyngioma [Letter]

Patel, Krupesh; Allen, Jeffrey; Zagzag, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Radmanesh, Alireza; Gindin, Tatyana; Nicolaides, Theodore
PMID: 33073916
ISSN: 1545-5017
CID: 4641962

Extended lumbar drainage in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

Nunn, Adam C; Jones, Hayley E; Morosanu, Cezar O; Singleton, William G B; Williams, Michael A; Nagel, Sean J; Luciano, Mark G; Zwimpfer, Thomas J; Holubkov, Richard; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; McKhann, Guy M; Hamilton, Mark G; Edwards, Richard J
BACKGROUND:When appropriately selected, a high proportion of patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) will respond to cerebrospinal fluid diversion with a shunt. Extended lumbar drainage (ELD) is regarded as the most accurate test for this condition, however, varying estimates of its accuracy are found in the current literature. Here, we review the literature in order to provide summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive value for this test through meta-analysis of suitably rigorous studies. METHODS:Studies involving a population of NPH patients with predominantly idiopathic aetiology (>80%) in which the intention of the study was to shunt patients regardless of the outcome of ELD were included in the review. Various literature databases were searched to identify diagnostic test accuracy studies addressing ELD in the diagnosis of iNPH. Those studies passing screening and eligibility were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool and data extracted for bivariate random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS:Four small studies were identified. They showed disparate results concerning diagnostic test accuracy. The summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity were 94% (CI 41-100%) and 85% (CI 33-100%), respectively. The summary estimates of positive and negative predictive value were both 90% (CIs 65-100% and 48-100%, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Large, rigorous studies addressing the diagnostic accuracy of ELD are lacking, and little robust evidence exists to support the use of ELD in diagnostic algorithms for iNPH. Therefore, a large cohort study, or ideally an RCT, is needed to determine best practice in selecting patients for shunt surgery.
PMID: 32643967
ISSN: 1360-046x
CID: 4519212

Posterior Fossa Society Consensus Meeting 2018: a synopsis

Molinari, Emanuela; Pizer, Barry; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene; Avula, Shivaram; Keating, Robert; Paquier, Philippe; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Walsh, Karin S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The Posterior Fossa Society (PFS) was founded 4 years ago to systematically gather and exchange information on the post-operative (CMS) and cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS). With its consensus meetings, the PFS orchestrates research studies in the field of cerebellar injury and progresses the knowledge of post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS). In this article, we captured the 3-day program of presentations, group discussions, interactive workshops, and dialogue, highlighting the key topic areas of CMS and its research advances. METHODS:This synopsis is based on the third consensus meeting which was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, in August 2018. RESULTS:Three working groups have been defined to drive the future research priorities on post-surgical CMS: (i) refining definition and symptoms scoring of CMS; (ii) understanding the pathogenesis and enhancing risk-stratification strategies; and (iii) developing rehabilitation approaches and protocols. CONCLUSIONS:The third consensus meeting highlighted a unanimous desire for data-driven information to advance the knowledge and guide future research efforts. The PFS constitutes an established and expanding network of multi-disciplinary expertise that can facilitate the development of collaborative studies and produce official guidelines on the topic.
PMID: 31177321
ISSN: 1433-0350
CID: 3929652