IgG4-related orbital disease masquerading as thyroid eye disease, vice versa, or both?
A 40Â year-old male presented after one year of unilateral, progressive, steroid-responsive, orbital inflammatory disease causing proptosis, extraocular muscle (EOM) restriction, and compressive optic neuropathy. The development of anti-thyroidal antibodies prompted the diagnosis of thyroid eye disease (TED); however, the prolonged active phase, remarkable reversibility of ophthalmic features with high-dose corticosteroids, unilaterally of disease, uncharacteristic EOM involvement (including both obliques), and the absence of autoimmune thyroid disease provoked consideration of alternative diagnoses. Inferior oblique biopsy stained positive for IgG4 with histologic features atypical of TED. The patient received rituximab for presumed IgG4-related orbital disease (IgG4-ROD) with subsequent reversal of compressive optic neuropathy, near complete resolution of EOM restriction, and improved proptosis, the latter two of which are not routinely anticipated in advanced TED. The possible role for B-cell depletion in both TED and IgG4-ROD suggests a degree of overlap in the underlying immune-related pathophysiology that is yet to be defined.
Recurrent profuse hemorrhage after chalazion excision in a patient with systemic amyloidosis [Letter]
Impact of the Affordable Health Care Act on No-Show Rates and Demographics of Patients Presenting for Eye Care in an Underserved Inner City Population - a 2-year Update [Meeting Abstract]
Novel Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cyclorotation Compensation in Topography-guided Treatments [Meeting Abstract]
Recurrent Thyroid Eye Disease
PURPOSE:: The natural history of thyroid eye disease follows a biphasic course featuring an initial active stage followed by a durable quiescent stage. Reactivation of thyroid eye disease is defined by recurrence of inflammatory signs and symptoms after a period of stability lasting at least 6 months. It is thought to be rare and is poorly studied. The goal of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of recurrent thyroid eye disease. METHODS:: A retrospective chart review of 415 visits of patients with thyroid eye disease was performed between 2006 and 2012. Recurrent cases were identified by subjective historical accounts of disease recurrence, review of prior orbital imaging, and photographic evidence. RESULTS:: Among 415 cases of thyroid eye disease, 65 cases of recurrence (15.7%) were identified. Most cases of reactivation occurred within the first 10 years after the initial episode of thyroid eye disease. The mean age of patients at the first event was 42.2 years and 52.6 years at the second event. Eighteen patients had identifiable events that may have triggered disease recurrence. The recurrence rate was higher among patients that had been smokers during their first episode of thyroid eye disease (22%) compared with the nonsmokers (14.6%). CONCLUSIONS:: Although uncommon, recurrence of thyroid eye disease does not appear to be as rare as previously believed. A better understanding of the natural history of thyroid eye disease is important as it impacts patient education and management.
Safety of bilateral intravitreal injections delivered in a teaching institution [Editorial]
Intravitreal injection is one of the most common in-office procedures performed in ophthalmic practices. In teaching institutions such as the Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospitals, patient care is delivered by physicians-in-training, while mastering intravitreal injection technique. Infectious endophthalmitis and visual loss are the most feared complications of intravitreal injections, especially in the context of recent outbreaks caused by contaminated compounded medications. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic educators increasingly face the dilemma of timing as well as balancing the risks and benefits of bilateral treatments required by many patients. In this editorial, we discuss published reports of bilateral injections, summarize our experience with bilateral intravitreal injections in a teaching setting at the Miami VA Hospital and list our recommendations for minimizing the risk of infectious endophthalmitis.
Epidemiological trends in the neurological intensive care unit from 2000 to 2008
Intensive care units (ICU) specializing in the treatment of patients with neurological diseases (Neuro-ICU) have become increasingly common. However, there are few data on the longitudinal demographics of this patient population. Identifying admission trends may provide targets for improving resource utilization. We performed a retrospective analysis of admission logs for primary diagnosis, age, sex, and length of stay, for all patients admitted to the Neuro-ICU at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) between 2000 and 2008. From 2000 to 2008, inclusive, the total number of Neuro-ICU admissions increased by 49.9%. Overall mean patient age (54.6 +/- 17.4 to 56.2 +/- 18.0 years, p=0.041) and gender (55.9-50.3% female, p=0.005) changed significantly, while median length of stay (2 days) did not. When comparing the time period prior to construction of a larger Neuro-ICU (2000-2004) to that after completion (2005-2008), patient age (56.0 +/- 17.6 compared to 56.9 +/- 17.5 years, p=0.012) and median length of stay (1 compared to 2 days, p<0.001) both significantly increased. Construction of a newer, larger Neuro-ICU at CUMC led to a substantial increase in admissions and changes in diagnoses from 2000 to 2008. Advances in neurocritical care, neurosurgical practices, and the local and global expansion and utilization of ICU resources likely led to differences in lengths of stay.
Impact of platelet transfusion on hematoma expansion in patients receiving antiplatelet agents before intracerebral hemorrhage
OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving antiplatelet medications are reported to be at increased risk for hematoma enlargement and worse clinical outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). While platelet transfusions are frequently administered to counteract qualitative platelet defects in the setting of ICH, conclusive evidence in support of this therapeutic strategy is lacking. In fact, platelet transfusions may be associated with adverse effects, and represent a finite resource. We sought to determine the clinical efficacy of platelet transfusion and its impact on systemic complications following ICH in a cohort of patients receiving antiplatelet medications. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 66 patients admitted to our institution from June 2003 to July 2008 who suffered a primary ICH while receiving antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid and/or clopidogrel) therapy. The primary outcome was the rate of significant (>25% increase from admission) hematoma expansion in transfused (n=35) versus non-transfused (n=31) patients. Discharge modified-Rankin score (mRS) and the rates of systemic complications were also assessed. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in rates of hematoma expansion between cohorts, nor were there differences in demographic variables, systemic complications or discharge mRS. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was a higher rate of hematoma expansion in the clopidogrel cohort (p=0.034) than in the cohort of patients receiving aspirin alone. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that platelet administration does not reduce the frequency of hematoma expansion in ICH patients receiving antiplatelet medications. This lack of efficacy may relate to transfusion timing, as a significant proportion of hematoma expansion occurs within 6 hours post-ictus. Additionally, the increased rates of hematoma expansion in the clopidogrel cohort may relate to its prolonged half-life. A larger, prospective study is warranted.
The impact of microsurgical fenestration of the lamina terminalis on shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
OBJECTIVE:Chronic hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement and cerebral vasospasm are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Recent publications have investigated the possibility that microsurgical fenestration of the lamina terminalis during aneurysm surgery may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and cerebral vasospasm. We reviewed a single-surgeon series to compare postsurgical outcomes of patients who underwent fenestration of the lamina terminalis against those who did not. METHODS:This study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 369 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between January 2000 and July 2006. All patients underwent craniotomy and clipping of at least one ruptured cerebral aneurysm by a single neurosurgeon (ESC). The incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, conversion from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus, and clinical cerebral vasospasm were compared in patients who underwent fenestration of the lamina terminalis with those who did not. The patient cohort was thus divided into three subgroups: 1) patients whose operative records clearly indicated that they underwent fenestration of the lamina terminalis, 2) patients whose operative records clearly indicated that they did not undergo fenestration of the lamina terminalis, and 3) patients whose operative records did not indicate one way or another whether they received fenestration of the lamina terminalis. We performed two separate analyses by comparing the postsurgical outcomes in those patients who were fenestrated versus those who were definitively not fenestrated and comparing the postsurgical outcomes in those patients who were fenestrated versus those who were not plus those whose records did not document fenestration. To further control for any cohort differences, we performed a comparison between patients who were fenestrated and those who were not after matching 1:1 for presenting radiographic and clinical characteristics predictive of hydrocephalus and vasospasm. Outcomes were compared using logistic regression and multivariable analysis. RESULTS:In the first model, fenestrated patients had a shunt rate, conversion rate, and rate of clinical vasospasm of 25, 50, and 23%, respectively, versus 20, 27, and 27% in nonfenestrated patients, respectively (P = 0.28, 0.21, and 0.32, respectively). In the second model, the nonfenestrated patients plus nondocumented patients had a shunt rate, conversion rate, and rate of clinical vasospasm of 16, 40, and 20%, respectively (P = 0.19, 0.33, and 0.60, respectively). In the matched cohort, fenestrated patients had a shunt rate, conversion rate, and rate of clinical vasospasm of 29, 67, and 20%, respectively, versus 20, 25, and 25% in nonfenestrated patients, respectively (P = 0.30, 0.24, and 0.20, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to other retrospective multisurgeon series, our retrospective single-surgeon series suggests that microsurgical fenestration of the lamina terminalis may not reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus or cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A prospective multicenter trial is needed to definitively address the use of this maneuver.
Neurological, functional, and psychosocial outcomes following radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations [Meeting Abstract]