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Catheter-based therapy for high-risk or intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: death and re-hospitalization

Leiva, Orly; Alviar, Carlos; Khandhar, Sameer; Parikh, Sahil A; Toma, Catalin; Postelnicu, Radu; Horowitz, James; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Greco, Allison; Bangalore, Sripal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Catheter-based therapies (CBTs) have been developed as a treatment option in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). There remains a paucity of data to inform decision-making in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk PE. The aim of this study was to characterize in-hospital and readmission outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk PE treated with vs. without CBT in a large retrospective registry. METHODS:Patients hospitalized with intermediate-risk or high-risk PE were identified using the 2017-20 National Readmission Database. In-hospital outcomes included death and bleeding and 30- and 90-day readmission outcomes including all-cause, venous thromboembolism (VTE)-related and bleeding-related readmissions. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was utilized to compare outcomes between CBT and no CBT. RESULTS:A total of 14 903 [2076 (13.9%) with CBT] and 42 829 [8824 (20.6%) with CBT] patients with high-risk and intermediate-risk PE were included, respectively. Prior to IPTW, patients with CBT were younger and less likely to have cancer and cardiac arrest, receive systemic thrombolysis, or be on mechanical ventilation. In the IPTW logistic regression model, CBT was associated with lower odds of in-hospital death in high-risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.87] and intermediate-risk PE (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83). Patients with high-risk PE treated with CBT were associated with lower risk of 90-day all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.83] and VTE (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.63) readmission. Patients with intermediate-risk PE treated with CBT were associated with lower risk of 90-day all-cause (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72-0.79) and VTE (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76) readmission. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with high-risk or intermediate-risk PE, CBT was associated with lower in-hospital death and 90-day readmission. Prospective, randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.
PMID: 38573048
ISSN: 1522-9645
CID: 5664662

Comparing Management Strategies in Patients With Clot-in-Transit

Zhang, Robert S; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Zhang, Peter; Elbaum, Lindsay; Bailey, Eric; Maqsood, Muhammad H; Postelnicu, Radu; Amoroso, Nancy E; Maldonado, Thomas S; Saric, Muhamed; Alviar, Carlos L; Horowitz, James M; Bangalore, Sripal
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Clot-in-transit is associated with high mortality, but optimal management strategies remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different treatment strategies in patients with clot-in-transit. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This is a retrospective study of patients with documented clot-in-transit in the right heart on echocardiography across 2 institutions between January 2020 and October 2023. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or hemodynamic decompensation. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:=0.067). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In this study of CBT in patients with clot-in-transit, CBT or systemic thrombolysis was associated with a significantly lower rate of adverse clinical outcomes, including a lower rate of death compared with anticoagulation alone driven by the CBT group. CBT has the potential to improve outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to test these associations.
PMID: 38841833
ISSN: 1941-7632
CID: 5665552

Low left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral predicts normotensive shock in patients with acute pulmonary embolism [Letter]

Zhang, Robert S; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Nayar, Ambika C; Elbaum, Lindsay; Greco, Allison A; Rhee, Aaron J; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Keller, Norma; Alviar, Carlos L; Horowitz, James M; Bangalore, Sripal
In this study, we found that a low LVOT VTI (<15 cm), a simple bedside point-of-care measurement, predicts normotensive shock in patients with acute intermediate-risk PE.
PMID: 38670834
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5657872

Prognostic performance of the IABP-SHOCK II Risk Score among cardiogenic shock subtypes in the critical care cardiology trials network registry

Alviar, Carlos L; Li, Boyangzi K; Keller, Norma M; Bohula-May, Erin; Barnett, Christopher; Berg, David D; Burke, James A; Chaudhry, Sunit-Preet; Daniels, Lori B; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Gerber, Daniel; Horowitz, James; Jentzer, Jacob C; Katrapati, Praneeth; Keeley, Ellen; Lawler, Patrick R; Park, Jeong-Gun; Sinha, Shashank S; Snell, Jeffrey; Solomon, Michael A; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Katz, Jason N; van Diepen, Sean; Morrow, David A; ,
BACKGROUND:Risk stratification has potential to guide triage and decision-making in cardiogenic shock (CS). We assessed the prognostic performance of the IABP-SHOCK II score, derived in Europe for acute myocardial infarct-related CS (AMI-CS), in a contemporary North American cohort, including different CS phenotypes. METHODS:The critical care cardiology trials network (CCCTN) coordinated by the TIMI study group is a multicenter network of cardiac intensive care units (CICU). Participating centers annually contribute ≥2 months of consecutive medical CICU admissions. The IABP-SHOCK II risk score includes age > 73 years, prior stroke, admission glucose > 191 mg/dl, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl, lactate > 5 mmol/l, and post-PCI TIMI flow grade < 3. We assessed the risk score across various CS etiologies. RESULTS:= 0.17) and the IABP-SHOCK II score revealed a significant risk gradient within each SCAI stage. CONCLUSIONS:In an unselected international multicenter registry of patients admitted with CS, the IABP- SHOCK II score only moderately predicted in-hospital mortality in a broad population of CS regardless of etiology or irrespective of right, left, or bi-ventricular involvement.
PMID: 38190931
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5639692

Anti-factor Xa as the preferred assay to monitor heparin for the treatment of pulmonary embolism

Zhu, Eric; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Raco, Veronica; Katz, Alyson; Papadopoulos, John; Horowitz, James; Maldonado, Thomas; Ahuja, Tania
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The mainstay of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) treatment is anticoagulation. Timely anticoagulation correlates with decreased PE-associated mortality, but the ability to achieve a therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains limited. Although some institutions have switched to a more accurate and reproducible test to assess for heparin's effectiveness, the anti-factor Xa (antiXa) assay, data correlating a timely therapeutic antiXa to PE-associated clinical outcomes remains scarce. We evaluated time to a therapeutic antiXa using intravenous heparin after PE response team (PERT) activation and assessed clinical outcomes including bleeding and recurrent thromboembolic events. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study at NYU Langone Health. All adult patients ≥18 years with a confirmed PE started on IV UFH with >2 antiXa levels were included. Patients were excluded if they received thrombolysis or alternative anticoagulation. The primary endpoint was the time to a therapeutic antiXa level of 0.3-0.7 units/mL. Secondary outcomes included recurrent thromboembolism, bleeding and PE-associated mortality within 3 months. RESULTS:A total of 330 patients with a PERT consult were identified with 192 patients included. The majority of PEs were classified as sub massive (64.6%) with 87% of patients receiving a bolus of 80 units/kg of UFH prior to starting an infusion at 18 units/kg/hour. The median time to the first therapeutic antiXa was 9.13 hours with 93% of the cohort sustaining therapeutic anticoagulation at 48 hours. Recurrent thromboembolism, bleeding and mortality occurred in 1%, 5% and 6.2%, respectively. Upon univariate analysis, a first antiXa <0.3 units/ml was associated with an increased risk of mortality [27.78% (5/18) vs 8.05% (14/174), p = 0.021]. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed a low incidence of recurrent thromboembolism or PE-associated mortality utilizing an antiXa titrated UFH protocol. The use of an antiXa based heparin assay to guide heparin dosing and monitoring allows for timely and sustained therapeutic anticoagulation for treatment of PE.
PMID: 37989523
ISSN: 1751-553x
CID: 5608542

Development and external validation of a dynamic risk score for early prediction of cardiogenic shock in cardiac intensive care units using machine learning

Hu, Yuxuan; Lui, Albert; Goldstein, Mark; Sudarshan, Mukund; Tinsay, Andrea; Tsui, Cindy; Maidman, Samuel D; Medamana, John; Jethani, Neil; Puli, Aahlad; Nguy, Vuthy; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Kiefer, Nicholas; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Horowitz, James; Ahuja, Tania; Fishman, Glenn I; Hochman, Judith; Katz, Stuart; Bernard, Samuel; Ranganath, Rajesh
BACKGROUND:Myocardial infarction and heart failure are major cardiovascular diseases that affect millions of people in the US with the morbidity and mortality being highest among patients who develop cardiogenic shock. Early recognition of cardiogenic shock allows prompt implementation of treatment measures. Our objective is to develop a new dynamic risk score, called CShock, to improve early detection of cardiogenic shock in cardiac intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We developed and externally validated a deep learning-based risk stratification tool, called CShock, for patients admitted into the cardiac ICU with acute decompensated heart failure and/or myocardial infarction to predict onset of cardiogenic shock. We prepared a cardiac ICU dataset using MIMIC-III database by annotating with physician adjudicated outcomes. This dataset that consisted of 1500 patients with 204 having cardiogenic/mixed shock was then used to train CShock. The features used to train the model for CShock included patient demographics, cardiac ICU admission diagnoses, routinely measured laboratory values and vital signs, and relevant features manually extracted from echocardiogram and left heart catheterization reports. We externally validated the risk model on the New York University (NYU) Langone Health cardiac ICU database that was also annotated with physician adjudicated outcomes. The external validation cohort consisted of 131 patients with 25 patients experiencing cardiogenic/mixed shock. RESULTS:CShock achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.821 (95% CI 0.792-0.850). CShock was externally validated in the more contemporary NYU cohort and achieved an AUROC of 0.800 (95% CI 0.717-0.884), demonstrating its generalizability in other cardiac ICUs. Having an elevated heart rate is most predictive of cardiogenic shock development based on Shapley values. The other top ten predictors are having an admission diagnosis of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation, having an admission diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure, Braden Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, Blood urea nitrogen, Systolic blood pressure, Serum chloride, Serum sodium, and Arterial blood pH. CONCLUSIONS:The novel CShock score has the potential to provide automated detection and early warning for cardiogenic shock and improve the outcomes for the millions of patients who suffer from myocardial infarction and heart failure.
PMID: 38518758
ISSN: 2048-8734
CID: 5640892

Need for a Cardiogenic Shock Team Collaborative-Promoting a Team-Based Model of Care to Improve Outcomes and Identify Best Practices

Senman, Balimkiz; Jentzer, Jacob C; Barnett, Christopher F; Bartos, Jason A; Berg, David D; Chih, Sharon; Drakos, Stavros G; Dudzinski, David M; Elliott, Andrea; Gage, Ann; Horowitz, James M; Miller, P Elliott; Sinha, Shashank S; Tehrani, Behnam N; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Katz, Jason N
Cardiogenic shock continues to carry a high mortality rate despite contemporary care, with no breakthrough therapies shown to improve survival over the past few decades. It is a time-sensitive condition that commonly results in cardiovascular complications and multisystem organ failure, necessitating multidisciplinary expertise. Managing patients with cardiogenic shock remains challenging even in well-resourced settings, and an important subgroup of patients may require cardiac replacement therapy. As a result, the idea of leveraging the collective cognitive and procedural proficiencies of multiple providers in a collaborative, team-based approach to care (the "shock team") has been advocated by professional societies and implemented at select high-volume clinical centers. A slowly maturing evidence base has suggested that cardiogenic shock teams may improve patient outcomes. Although several registries exist that are beginning to inform care, particularly around therapeutic strategies of pharmacologic and mechanical circulatory support, none of these are currently focused on the shock team approach, multispecialty partnership, education, or process improvement. We propose the creation of a Cardiogenic Shock Team Collaborative-akin to the successful Pulmonary Embolism Response Team Consortium-with a goal to promote sharing of care protocols, education of stakeholders, and discovery of how process and performance may influence patient outcomes, quality, resource consumption, and costs of care.
PMID: 38456417
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5639802

Medical and Mechanical Circulatory Support of the Failing Right Ventricle

Yuriditsky, Eugene; Chonde, Meshe; Friedman, Oren; Horowitz, James M
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:To describe medical therapies and mechanical circulatory support devices used in the treatment of acute right ventricular failure. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Experts have proposed several algorithms providing a stepwise approach to medical optimization of acute right ventricular failure including tailored volume administration, ideal vasopressor selection to support coronary perfusion, inotropes to restore contractility, and pulmonary vasodilators to improve afterload. Studies have investigated various percutaneous and surgically implanted right ventricular assist devices in several clinical settings. The initial management of acute right ventricular failure is often guided by invasive hemodynamic data tracking parameters of circulatory function with the use of pharmacologic therapies. Percutaneous microaxial and centrifugal extracorporeal pumps bypass the failing RV and support circulatory function in severe cases of right ventricular failure.
PMID: 38108956
ISSN: 1534-3170
CID: 5612422

Catheter-based therapy for intermediate or high-risk pulmonary embolism is associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with cancer: Insights from the National Inpatient Sample

Leiva, Orly; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Postelnicu, Radu; Yang, Eric H; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Greco, Allison; Horowitz, James; Alviar, Carlos; Bangalore, Sripal
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common complication among patients with cancer and is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. Catheter-based therapies (CBT), including catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and mechanical thrombectomy, have been developed and are used in patients with intermediate or high-risk PE. However, there is a paucity of data on outcomes in patients with cancer as most clinical studies exclude this group of patients. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To characterize outcomes of patients with cancer admitted with intermediate or high-risk PE treated with CBT compared with no CBT. METHODS:Patients with an admission diagnosis of intermediate or high-risk PE and a history of cancer from October 2015 to December 2018 were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest were in-hospital death or cardiac arrest (CA) and major bleeding. Inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) was utilized to compare outcomes between patients treated with and without CBT. Variables that remained unbalanced after IPTW were adjusted using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:A total of 2084 unweighted admissions (10,420 weighted) for intermediate or high-risk PE and cancer were included, of which 136 (6.5%) were treated with CBT. After IPTW, CBT was associated with lower death or CA (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.46-0.64) but higher major bleeding (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21-1.65). After stratifying by PE risk type, patients treated with CBT had lower risk of death or CA in both intermediate (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.75) and high-risk PE (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.53). However, patients with CBT were associated with increased risk of major bleeding in intermediate-risk PE (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.67-2.69) but not in those with high-risk PE (aOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.66-1.07). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with cancer hospitalized with intermediate or high-risk PE, treatment with CBT was associated with lower risk of in-hospital death or CA but higher risk of bleeding. Prospective studies and inclusion of patients with cancer in randomized trials are warranted to confirm our findings.
PMID: 37997287
ISSN: 1522-726x
CID: 5608872

Prioritizing Rapid Reperfusion in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock: Leveraging Regionalized Systems of Care [Editorial]

Yuriditsky, Eugene; Horowitz, James M
PMID: 38293832
ISSN: 1941-7632
CID: 5627602