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Preventing the Demise of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

Joseph, Kathie-Ann; Williams, Renee
PMID: 38869905
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5669292

Does Cancer Accreditation Designation Mean Better Quality Care and Long-Term Oncological Outcomes? [Editorial]

Joseph, Kathie-Ann
PMID: 38252265
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5624692

Addressing Data Aggregation and Data Inequity in Race and Ethnicity Reporting and the Impact on Breast Cancer Disparities

Wilson, Brianna; Mendez, Jane; Newman, Lisa; Lum, Sharon; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
Collecting and reporting data on race and ethnicity is vital to understanding and addressing health disparities in the United States. These health disparities can include increased prevalence and severity of disease, poorer health outcomes, decreased access to healthcare, etc., in disadvantaged populations compared with advantaged groups. Without these data, researchers, administrators, public health practitioners, and policymakers are unable to identify the need for targeted interventions and assistance. When researching or reporting on race and ethnicity, typically broad racial categories are used. These include White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, or American Indian and Alaska Native, as well as categories for ethnicity such as Latino or Hispanic or not Latino or Hispanic. These categories, defined by the Office of Management and Budget, are the minimum standards for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity data across federal agencies. Of note, these categories have not been updated since 1997. The lack of accurate and comprehensive data on marginalized racial and ethnic groups limits our understanding of and ability to address health disparities. This has implications for breast cancer outcomes in various populations in this country. In this paper, we examine the impact data inequity and the lack of data equity centered processes have in providing appropriate prevention and intervention efforts and resource allocations.
PMID: 37840113
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5590182

One step ahead: Finding mentors at all stages of a surgical career [Editorial]

Record, Sydney M; Chanenchuk, Tori; Altieri, Maria; Cannada, Lisa; Guetter, Camila R; Joseph, Kathie-Ann; Maxwell, Jessica; Reyna, Chantal; Sumra, Hibba; Tan, Sanda; Tasnim, Sadia; Yu, Yangyang R; Plichta, Jennifer K
PMID: 37414608
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 5539352

Insufficient Reporting of Race and Ethnicity in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

Keegan, Grace; Crown, Angelena; DiMaggio, Charles; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
BACKGROUND:Reporting race and ethnicity in clinical trial publications is critical for determining the generalizability and effectiveness of new treatments. This is particularly important for breast cancer, in which Black women have been shown to have between 40 and 100% higher mortality rate yet are underrepresented in trials. Our objective was to describe changes over time in the reporting of race/ethnicity in breast trial publications. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:We searched to identify the primary publication linked to trials with results posted from May 2010-2022. Statistical analysis included summed frequencies and a linear regression model of the proportion of articles reporting race/ethnicity and the proportion of non-White enrollees over time. RESULTS:A proportion of 72 of the 98 (73.4%) studies that met inclusion criteria reported race/ethnicity. In a linear regression model of the proportion of studies reporting race/ethnicity as a function of time, there was no statistically significant change, although we detected a signal toward a decreasing trend (coefficient for quarter = -2.2, p = 0.2). Among all studies reporting race and ethnicity over the study period, the overall percentage of non-White enrollees during the study period was 21.9%, [standard error (s.e.) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.4, 25.5] with a signal towards a decreasing trend in Non-White enrollment [coefficient for year-quarter = -0.8 (p = 0.2)]. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that both race reporting and overall representation of minority groups in breast cancer clinical trials did not improve over the last 12 years and may have, in fact, decreased. Increased reporting of race and ethnicity data forces the medical community to confront disparities in access to clinical trials. This may improve efforts to recruit and retain members of minority groups in clinical trials, and over time, reduce racial disparities in oncologic outcomes.
PMID: 37658271
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5605142

Disparities in Breast Cancer Patients with Disabilities: Care Gaps, Accessibility, and Best Practices

Keegan, Grace; Rizzo, John-Ross; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
Significant disparities exist in detecting and treating breast cancer in women with disabilities, leading to cancer detection at advanced stages. This paper provides an overview of disparities for women with disabilities related to breast cancer screening and care, primarily focusing on significant mobility disabilities. Current care gaps include screening barriers related to accessibility and inequitable treatment options, with race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic location, and disability severity factors, mediating the disparities for this population. The reasons for these disparities are myriad and stem from both system-level deficiencies and individual-level provider bias. Although structural changes are warranted, individual healthcare providers must also be incorporated in the requisite change. Intersectionality is critical to disparities and inequities and should be central to any discussion of strategies for improving care for people with disabilities, many of whom have intersectional identities. Efforts to reduce screening rate disparities for breast cancer in women with significant mobility disabilities should start with improving accessibility through removing structural barriers, establishing comprehensive accessibility standards, and addressing healthcare provider bias. Future interventional studies are needed to implement and assess the value of programs to improve breast cancer screening rates in women with disabilities. Increasing the representation of women with disabilities in clinical trials may provide another avenue for reducing treatment disparities, as these trials often provide breakthrough treatment to women with cancer diagnosed at later stages. Ultimately, attention to the specific needs of patients with disabilities should be improved across the US to promote inclusive and effective cancer screening and treatment.
PMID: 37421404
ISSN: 1460-2105
CID: 5539552

Is it time for health equity-specific metrics? [Editorial]

Joseph, Kathie-Ann
PMID: 37423781
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 5537322

A Call to Action to Train Underrepresented Minorities in Surgical Subspecialties and Fellowships

Escobar, Natalie; Keshinro, Ajaratu; Hambrecht, Amanda; Frangos, Spiros; Berman, Russell S; DiMaggio, Charles; Joseph, Kathie-Ann; Bukur, Marko; Klein, Michael J; Ude-Welcome, Akuezunkpa; Berry, Cherisse
BACKGROUND:With each succession along the surgical career pathway, from medical school to faculty, the percentage of those who identify as underrepresented in medicine (URiM) decreases. We sought to evaluate the demographic trend of surgical fellowship applicants, matriculants, and graduates over time. STUDY DESIGN:The Electronic Residency Application Service and the Graduate Medical Education Survey for general surgery fellowships in colorectal surgery, surgical oncology, pediatric surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgery were retrospectively analyzed (2005 to 2020). The data were stratified by race and gender, descriptive statistics were performed, and time series were evaluated. Race/ethnicity groups included White, Asian, other, and URiM, which is defined as Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino(a), Alaskan or Hawaiian Native, and Native American. RESULTS:From 2005 to 2020, there were 5,357 Electronic Residency Application Service applicants, 4,559 matriculants, and 4,178 graduates to surgery fellowships. Whites, followed by Asians, represented the highest percentage of applicants (62.7% and 22.3%, respectively), matriculants (65.4% and 23.8% respectively), and graduates (65.4% and 24.0%, respectively). For URiMs, the applicants (13.4%), matriculants (9.1%), and graduates (9.1%) remained significantly low (p < 0.001). When stratified by both race and gender, only 4.6% of the applicants, 2.7% of matriculants, and 2.4% of graduates identified as both URiM and female compared to White female applicants (20.0%), matriculants (17.9%), and graduates (16.5%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Significant disparities exist for URiMs in general surgery subspecialty fellowships. These results serve as a call to action to re-examine and improve the existing processes to increase the number of URiMs in the surgery subspecialty fellowship training pathway.
PMID: 36946471
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5525062

Disparity in Breast Cancer Care: Current State of Access to Screening, Genetic Testing, Oncofertility, and Reconstruction

Crown, Angelena; Fazeli, Soudabeh; Kurian, Allison W; Ochoa, Daniela A; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for an estimated 30% of all new cancer diagnoses in women in 2022. Advances in breast cancer treatment have reduced the mortality rate over the past 25 years by up to 34% but not all groups have benefitted equally from these improvements. These disparities span the continuum of care from screening to the receipt of guideline-concordant therapy and survivorship. At the 2022 American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress, a panel session was dedicated to educating and discussing methods of addressing these disparities in a coordinated manner. While there are multilevel solutions to address these disparities, this article focuses on screening, genetic testing, reconstruction, and oncofertility.
PMID: 36971366
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5502562

Invited Editorial on Breast Surgical Oncology Epidemiological Research: A Guide and Comparison of Four National Databases [Editorial]

Crown, Angelena; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
PMID: 36513907
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5382122