Designing a clinical dashboard to fill information gaps in the emergency department
Data fragmentation within electronic health records causes gaps in the information readily available to clinicians. We investigated the information needs of emergency medicine clinicians in order to design an electronic dashboard to fill information gaps in the emergency department. An online survey was distributed to all emergency medicine physicians at a large, urban academic medical center. The survey response rate was 48% (52/109). The clinical information items reported to be most helpful while caring for patients in the emergency department were vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) reports, previous discharge summaries, and previous lab results. Brief structured interviews were also conducted with 18 clinicians during their shifts in the emergency department. From the interviews, three themes emerged: 1) difficulty accessing vital signs, 2) difficulty accessing point-of-care tests, and 3) difficulty comparing the current ECG with the previous ECG. An emergency medicine clinical dashboard was developed to address these difficulties.
Ro60-Associated Single-Stranded RNA Links Inflammation with Fetal Cardiac Fibrosis via Ligation of TLRs: A Novel Pathway to Autoimmune-Associated Heart Block
Activation of TLR by ssRNA after FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis of immune complexes (IC) may be relevant in autoimmune-associated congenital heart block (CHB) where the obligate factor is a maternal anti-SSA/Ro Ab and the fetal factors, protein/RNA on an apoptotic cardiocyte and infiltrating macrophages. This study addressed the hypothesis that Ro60-associated ssRNAs link macrophage activation to fibrosis via TLR engagement. Both macrophage transfection with noncoding ssRNA that bind Ro60 and an IC generated by incubation of Ro60-ssRNA with an IgG fraction from a CHB mother or affinity purified anti-Ro60 significantly increased TNF-alpha secretion, an effect not observed using control RNAs or normal IgG. Dependence on TLR was supported by the significant inhibition of TNF-alpha release by IRS661 and chloroquine. The requirement for FcgammaRIIIa-mediated delivery was provided by inhibition with an anti-CD16a Ab. Fibrosis markers were noticeably increased in fetal cardiac fibroblasts after incubation with supernatants generated from macrophages transfected with ssRNA or incubated with the IC. Supernatants generated from macrophages with ssRNA in the presence of IRS661 or chloroquine did not cause fibrosis. In a CHB heart, but not a healthy heart, TLR7 immunostaining was localized to a region near the atrioventricular groove at a site enriched in mononuclear cells and fibrosis. These data support a novel injury model in CHB, whereby endogenous ligand, Ro60-associated ssRNA, forges a nexus between TLR ligation and fibrosis instigated by binding of anti-Ro Abs to the target protein likely accessible via apoptosis
Neighborhood-Level Risk Factors for Severe Hyperglycemia among Emergency Department Patients without a Prior Diabetes Diagnosis
A person's place of residence is a strong risk factor for important diagnosed chronic diseases such as diabetes. It is unclear whether neighborhood-level risk factors also predict the probability of undiagnosed disease. The objective of this study was to identify neighborhood-level variables associated with severe hyperglycemia among emergency department (ED) patients without a history of diabetes. We analyzed patients without previously diagnosed diabetes for whom a random serum glucose value was obtained in the ED. We defined random glucose values ≥ 200 mg/dL as severe hyperglycemia, indicating probable undiagnosed diabetes. Patient addresses were geocoded and matched with neighborhood-level socioeconomic measures from the American Community Survey and claims-based surveillance estimates of diabetes prevalence. Neighborhood-level exposure variables were standardized based on z-scores, and a series of logistic regression models were used to assess the association of selected exposures and hyperglycemia adjusting for biological and social individual-level risk factors for diabetes. Of 77,882 ED patients without a history of diabetes presenting in 2021, 1,715 (2.2%) had severe hyperglycemia. Many geospatial exposures were associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, even after controlling for individual-level risk factors. The most strongly associated neighborhood-level variables included lower markers of educational attainment, higher percentage of households where limited English is spoken, lower rates of white-collar employment, and higher rates of Medicaid insurance. Including these geospatial factors in risk assessment models may help identify important subgroups of patients with undiagnosed disease.
Efficacy and Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on CT Pulmonary Angiography Ordering Behavior in the Emergency Department
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of a multimodal intervention in reducing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) overutilization in the evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism in the emergency department (ED). METHODS:Previous mixed-methods analysis of barriers to guideline-concordant CTPA ordering results was used to develop a provider-focused behavioral intervention consisting of a clinical decision support tool and an audit and feedback system at a multisite, tertiary academic network. The primary outcome (guideline concordance) and secondary outcomes (yield and CTPA and D-dimer order rates) were compared using a pre- and postintervention design. ED encounters for adult patients from July 5, 2017, to January 3, 2019, were included. Fisher's exact tests and statistical process control charts were used to compare the pre- and postintervention groups for each outcome. RESULTS:Of the 201,912 ED patient visits evaluated, 3,587 included CTPA. Guideline concordance increased significantly after the intervention, from 66.9% to 77.5% (P < .001). CTPA order rate and D-dimer order rate also increased significantly, from 17.1 to 18.4 per 1,000 patients (P = .035) and 30.6 to 37.3 per 1,000 patients (P < .001), respectively. Percent yield showed no significant change (12.3% pre- versus 10.8% postintervention; P = .173). Statistical process control analysis showed sustained special-cause variation in the postintervention period for guideline concordance and D-dimer order rates, temporary special-cause variation for CTPA order rates, and no special-cause variation for percent yield. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our success in increasing guideline concordance demonstrates the efficacy of a mixed-methods, human-centered approach to behavior change. Given that neither of the secondary outcomes improved, our results may demonstrate potential limitations to the guidelines directing the ordering of CTPA studies and D-dimer ordering.
Using Resident-Sensitive Quality Measures Derived From Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Residents' Performance in Pediatric Emergency Medicine
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Traditional quality metrics do not adequately represent the clinical work done by residents and, thus, cannot be used to link residency training to health care quality. This study aimed to determine whether electronic health record (EHR) data can be used to meaningfully assess residents' clinical performance in pediatric emergency medicine using resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs). METHOD/METHODS:EHR data for asthma and bronchiolitis RSQMs from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, a quaternary children's hospital, between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019, were analyzed by ranking residents based on composite scores calculated using raw, unadjusted, and case-mix adjusted latent score models, with lower percentiles indicating a lower quality of care and performance. Reliability and associations between the scores produced by the 3 scoring models were compared. Resident and patient characteristics associated with performance in the highest and lowest tertiles and changes in residents' rank after case-mix adjustments were also identified. RESULTS:274 residents and 1,963 individual encounters of bronchiolitis patients aged 0-1 as well as 270 residents and 1,752 individual encounters of asthmatic patients aged 2-21 were included in the analysis. The minimum reliability requirement to create a composite score was met for asthma data (Î± = 0.77), but not bronchiolitis (Î± = 0.17). The asthma composite scores showed high correlations (r = 0.90-0.99) between raw, latent, and adjusted composite scores. After case-mix adjustments, residents' absolute percentile rank shifted on average 10 percentiles. Residents who dropped by 10 or more percentiles were likely to be more junior, saw fewer patients, cared for less acute and younger patients, or had patients with a longer emergency department stay. CONCLUSIONS:For some clinical areas, it is possible to use EHR data, adjusted for patient complexity, to meaningfully assess residents' clinical performance and identify opportunities for quality improvement.
Providers Electing to Receive Electronic Result Notifications: Demographics and Motivation
BACKGROUND:â€ƒAutomated electronic result notifications can alert health care providers of important clinical results. In contrast to historical notification systems, which were predominantly focused on critical laboratory abnormalities and often not very customizable, modern electronic health records provide capabilities for subscription-based electronic notification. This capability has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:â€ƒThe purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of when and how a provider decides to use a subscription-based electronic notification. Better appreciation for the factors that contribute to selecting such notifications could aid in improving the functionality of these tools. METHODS:â€ƒWe performed an 8-month quantitative assessment of 3,291 notifications and a qualitative survey assessment of 73 providers who utilized an elective notification tool in our electronic health record. RESULTS:â€ƒWe found that most notifications were requested by attending physicians (âˆ¼60%) and from internal medicine specialty (âˆ¼25%). Most providers requested only a few notifications while a small minority (nearly 5%) requested 10 or more in the study period. The majority (nearly 30%) of requests were for chemistry laboratories. Survey respondents reported using the tool predominantly for important or time-sensitive laboratories. Overall opinions of the tool were positive (medianâ€‰=â€‰7 out of 10, 95% confidence interval: 6-9), with 40% of eligible respondents reporting the tool improved quality of care. Reported examples included time to result review, monitoring of heparin drips, and reviewing pathology results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒDeveloping an understanding for when and how providers decide to be notified of clinical results can help aid in the design and improvement of clinical tools, such as improved elective notifications. These tools may lead to reduced time to result review which could in turn improve clinical care quality.
Thromboelastography in the setting of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Severe acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning can result in fulminant hepatic failure and abnormal tests of coagulation. Although the international normalized ratio (INR) may be elevated, the actual hemostatic status of patients with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Few studies exist investigating the clinical use of thromboelastography (TEG) to evaluate the hemostatic status in the setting of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a retrospective review of patients who were admitted for APAP toxicity and received TEG testing at a single transplant center. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Nine patients had detectable APAP concentrations and exhibited elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities. Seven had thrombocytopenia. TEG revealed a decreased median alpha angle and maximum amplitude but other values were within the normal reference range. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Based on our study of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, TEG showed a decreased rate of fibrin formation and cross-linking, as well as reduced clot strength. These findings suggest that patients with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia have a theoretically increased bleeding risk as demonstrated by both elevated INR and abnormal TEG values. However, these TEG findings are more likely related to thrombocytopenia rather than directly to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies should be performed to elucidate the potential role of TEG in various stages of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
UNPLANNED ICU TRANSFER DURING COVID AS IT RELATES TO HOSPITAL VOLUME [Meeting Abstract]
Using Machine Learning to Improve Screening for Undiagnosed Diabetes among Emergency Department Patients [Meeting Abstract]
Leveraging Emergency Department Information Systems to Address Palliative Care Needs of ED Patients During the COVID Pandemic
The arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic to hospitals in New York City stressed our emergency departments (ED) with high patient volume, stresses on hospital resources and the arrival of numerous high acuity, critically ill patients. Amid this time, we sought to leverage the ED Information Systems (EDIS), to assist in connecting critically ill patients, their families, and providers in the ED with palliative care resources. We discuss 4 innovative, thoughtful solutions to assist ED providers in identifying and addressing the acute and unique palliative care needs of COVID patients.