10-Year Follow-Up Wear Analysis of Marathon Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: Short-term and intermediate-term wear rates for highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA) are significantly lower than published rates for traditional polyethylene liners. The aim of this study was to report the longest-to-date follow-up of a specific HCLPE liner. METHODS: A series of 35 THAs using a specific HCLPE liner were reviewed. Anteroposterior radiographs were reviewed for femoral head penetration, the presence of femoral and/or acetabular osteolysis, long-term survival, total wear, and wear rates in all patients. RESULTS: The average patient age at time of surgery was 70 years with an average follow-up of 10 years (118 months; range, 7.2-13.4 years). The mean wear rate in our cohort was 0.07 mm/y. Total wear was 0.71 mm over the study period. No hips showed evidence of osteolysis in any zones. Survivorship at latest follow-up was 100% with all-cause revision as an end point. CONCLUSION: The wear rate of HCLPE liners continues to be lower than published wear rates for traditional polyethylene and continues to reaffirm the acceptably low wear rates using HCLPE acetabular liner in primary THA.
The Etiology of Improved Outcomes at High Volume Centers Learning Theory and the Case of Implant Flashing
Increased volume has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes for many orthopaedic procedures. For individual surgeons, the concepts of learning curves and volume effects have been well established in the literature. For institutions, high-volume hospitals have also been shown to have better outcomes for orthopaedic procedures such as total joint replacements. However, exactly how hospital volume mediates this improvement is not well understood. Learning theory states that learning occurs as a result of accumulated experience, not based on time. We compared our institution's curve representing our implant flashing rates to other institutional data sets that exhibit learning and continuous quality improvement, including airline near misses, coal mining accidents, and others. Development of expertise is based on volume and rate of errors, and therefore higher volume is conducive to faster learning.
Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Current Concepts
Infection is a rare, serious complication after total joint arthroplasty and constitutes a considerable emotional and financial burden for patients, surgeons, and healthcare systems. Prevention of surgical site and periprosthetic joint infections is crucial. This requires knowledge of the microorganisms that commonly cause these infections, including Staphylococcus species. Selection of the appropriate antibiotic regimen to treat infection remains controversial, but cefazolin and cefuroxime are the most commonly recommended antibiotics for prophylaxis. Appropriate timing of administration before surgery, with redosing performed as needed, can help to ensure optimal antibiotic concentration during surgery. Given the increasing evidence that S aureus colonization is a risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection, an exploration of the potential benefits of preoperative S aureus carrier screening and decolonization protocols is warranted. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total joint arthroplasty and antibiotic powder at wound closure are other controversial topics that require additional research.
MRI Evaluation of Bipolar Bone Loss Using the On-Track Off-Track Method: A Feasibility Study
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the simultaneous MRI evaluation of Hill-Sachs lesions and glenoid bone loss by use of the on-track off-track method can be used to predict engagement during arthroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 75 consecutively registered patients (60 male patients, 15 female patients) with a history of previous anterior shoulder instability who underwent preoperative MRI of the shoulder and arthroscopy at our institution were reviewed. A total of 76 MRI examinations were included. Two readers reviewed the MR images of each patient blindly and independently and used the on-track off-track method to predict engagement. These results were compared with the findings related to engagement seen during arthroscopy, which was performed by one of seven orthopedic surgeons. Statistical analyses included Fisher exact test, logistic regression, ROC analysis, and calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Using the on-track off-track technique of reading MR images, the reviewers correctly predicted 13 of the 18 engaging (off-track) lesions (sensitivity, 72.2%). Among the 58 shoulders that did not engage (on-track), they correctly predicted 51 (specificity, 87.9%). Overall, the accuracy of the on-track off-track method was 84.2% with a positive predictive value of 65.0% and negative predictive value of 91.1%. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the on-track off-track method can be used in MRI to accurately assess the bipolar bone loss seen in patients with anterior shoulder instability for predicting the presence of engaging, or off-track, lesions. This information can be used preoperatively to help guide the type of stabilization procedure performed on patients with anterior shoulder instability.
Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Current Concepts
Infection is a rare, serious complication following total joint arthroplasty and constitutes a considerable emotional and financial burden for patients, surgeons, and healthcare systems. Prevention of surgical site and periprosthetic joint infections is crucial. This requires knowledge of the microorganisms that commonly cause these infections, including Staphylococcus species. Selection of the appropriate antibiotic regimen to treat infection remains controversial, but cefazolin and cefuroxime are the most commonly recommended antibiotics for prophylaxis. Appropriate timing of administration before surgery, with redosing performed as needed, can help to ensure optimal antibiotic concentration during surgery. Given the increasing evidence that S aureus colonization is a risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection, an exploration of the potential benefits of preoperative S aureus carrier screening and decolonization protocols is warranted. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total joint arthroplasty and antibiotic powder at wound closure are other controversial topics that require additional research.
MRI evaluation of bipolar bone loss: Can it be 3used to predict failure of arthroscopic shoulder stabilization? [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To see if failure of arthroscopic shoulder stabilization can be predicted by the evaluation of bipolar bone loss on MRI Methods: A retrospective review of 39 consecutive patients (40 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for recurrent, traumatic, anterior shoulder instability was performed. There were a total of 40 MRIs from 39 patients (31males, 8 females, mean age 31.7 yrs.). Mean follow-up was 19 months. Pre-operative plain radiographs, MRI scans, operative reports, arthroscopic photos, and post-operative records were reviewed for each patient. Surgical failure was defined as recurrent shoulder dislocation and/or persistent apprehension during normal range of motion. Each preoperative MRI scan was evaluated for bipolar bone loss by one musculoskeletal radiologist using the on-track/off-track (OOT) method in which the glenoid track (GT) and Hill-Sachs interval (HSI) aremeasured. According to this technique, the GT is calculated as 0.83D-d in which "D" represents the diameter of the intact glenoid and "d" corresponds to the amount of glenoid bone loss. The HSI represents the width of the Hill-Sachs lesion plus the width of the intact bone bridge between the rotator cuff attachment and the lateral aspect of the Hill-Sachs lesion. All measurements were in millimeters. Lesions were considered "off-track" if the HSI exceeded the GT and "on-track" if the HSI was less than the GT. These findings were then compared to the corresponding post-operative outcomes. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Fisher exact test.
Result(s): Of the 40 shoulders evaluated, 6 were considered surgical failures (3 with recurrent dislocation and 3 with persistent apprehension). The OOT method correctly predicted 1 of these failures and falsely predicted 6 failures in shoulders that were clinically stable. There was no significant difference when comparing stable to unstable shoulders with regards to age, size of GTand HSI. Overall, the OOT method sensitivity was 16.7% (1/6), specificity 82.4% (28/34), positive predictive value 14.3% (1/7), negative predictive value 84.9% (28/33) and overall accuracy 72.5% (29/40).
Conclusion(s): MRI evaluation of bipolar (humeral and glenoid) bone loss using the on-track/off-track method is a moderately accurate and specific, but insensitive technique to predict surgical failure after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for shoulder instability
Ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee and shoulder injections: a review
Intra-articular injections have traditionally been performed "blind," guided only by anatomic palpation. Many may be placed inaccurately, and the use of imaging may significantly improve injection accuracy. This review analyzed the impact of ultrasound-guidance on injection accuracy and clinical efficacy in the knee and shoulder joints. Ultrasound-guided injections were significantly more accurate than blind injections in clinical studies of the knee joint (92.7% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.05). Shoulder injections into the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints showed modest benefit in cadaver studies, but improved accuracy has not been demonstrated in clinical studies. Insufficient data was available to show any effect in the subacromial bursa. Preliminary efficacy research shows that that ultrasound guidance may modestly improve the subjective pain relief and functional improvement provided by these injections.