Defective lamin A-Rb signaling in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome and reversal by farnesyltransferase inhibition
Marji, Jackleen; O'Donoghue, Sean I; McClintock, Dayle; Satagopam, Venkata P; Schneider, Reinhard; Ratner, Desiree; Worman, Howard J; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder caused by a de novo heterozygous point mutation G608G (GGC>GGT) within exon 11 of LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins. This mutation elicits an internal deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A. The truncated protein, progerin, retains a farnesylated cysteine at its carboxyl terminus, a modification involved in HGPS pathogenesis. Inhibition of protein farnesylation has been shown to improve abnormal nuclear morphology and phenotype in cellular and animal models of HGPS. We analyzed global gene expression changes in fibroblasts from human subjects with HGPS and found that a lamin A-Rb signaling network is a major defective regulatory axis. Treatment of fibroblasts with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor reversed the gene expression defects. Our study identifies Rb as a key factor in HGPS pathogenesis and suggests that its modulation could ameliorate premature aging and possibly complications of physiological aging.
Androgen-mediated induction of the kidney arachidonate hydroxylases is associated with the development of hypertension
Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Marji, Jackleen S; Schwartzman, Michal L; Waterman, Michael R; Capdevila, Jorge H
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular, cerebral, and renal disease morbidity and mortality, and epidemiological evidence suggests a role for sex-dependent mechanisms in the pathophysiology of hypertension. We show here that treatment of rats with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone increases the activity of the kidney arachidonate omega/omega-1 hydroxylase and the biosynthesis of 20-HETE (165 and 177% of control untreated male and female rats, respectively) and raises the systolic blood pressures of male and females rats by 46 and 57 mmHg, respectively. These androgen effects are associated with an upregulation in the kidney levels of CYP 4A8 mRNA and a decrease in CYP 4A1 transcripts. Dissected renal microvessels, the target tissue for most of the prohypertensive actions of 20-HETE, show an androgen-dependent upregulation of vascular CYP 4A8 mRNA and a fourfold increase in 20-HETE synthase activity. We propose that androgens regulate renal function and systemic blood pressure through a combination of transcriptional and hemodynamic mechanisms that are ultimately responsible for the regulation of renovascular tone and function.
Cytochrome P-450 4A isoform expression and 20-HETE synthesis in renal preglomerular arteries
Marji, Jackleen S; Wang, Mong-Heng; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a potent vasoconstrictor and mediator of the myogenic response, is a major arachidonic acid metabolite in the microvasculature of the rat kidney formed primarily by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 4A isoforms, CYP4A1, CYP4A2, and CYP4A3. We examined CYP4A isoform expression and 20-HETE synthesis in microdissected interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries; mRNA for all CYP4A isoforms was identified by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis indicated that the levels of CYP4A2/4A3-immunoreactive protein increased with decreased arterial diameter, whereas those of CYP4A1-immunoreactive protein remained unchanged. 20-HETE synthesis was the highest in the interlobular arteries (17 +/- 1.62 nmol. mg(-1). h(-1)) and, like CYP4A2/4A3-immunoreactive protein, decreased with increasing vessel diameter (4.5 +/- 1.21, 2.65 +/- 0.58, and 0.81 +/- 0.14 nmol. mg(-1). h(-1) in the arcuate, interlobar, and segmental arteries, respectively). 20-HETE synthesis in the renal artery and the abdominal aorta was undetectable. The observed decreased immunoreactivity of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 (c) oxidoreductase with increased arterial diameter provided a possible explanation for the decreased capacity to generate 20-HETE in the large arteries. The increase in CYP4A isoform expression and 20-HETE synthesis with decreasing diameter along the preglomerular arteries and the potent biological activity of 20-HETE underscore the significance of 20-HETE as a modulator of renal hemodynamics.
CYP4A1 antisense oligonucleotide reduces mesenteric vascular reactivity and blood pressure in SHR
Wang, M H; Zhang, F; Marji, J; Zand, B A; Nasjletti, A; Laniado-Schwartzman, M
The cytochrome P-450 4A (CYP4A)-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) affects renal tubular and vascular functions and has been implicated in the control of arterial pressure. We examined the effect of antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) to CYP4A1, the low K(m) arachidonic acid omega-hydroxylating isoform, on vascular 20-HETE synthesis, vascular reactivity, and blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Administration of CYP4A1 antisense ODN decreased mean arterial blood pressure from 137 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) after 5 days of treatment, whereas treatment with scrambled antisense ODN had no effect. Treatment with CYP4A1 antisense ODN reduced the level of CYP4A-immunoreactive proteins along with 20-HETE synthesis in mesenteric arterial vessels. Mesenteric arteries from rats treated with antisense ODN exhibited decreased sensitivity to the constrictor action of phenylephrine (EC(50) 0.69 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.77 +/- 0.40 microM). Likewise, mesenteric arterioles from antisense ODN-treated rats revealed attenuation of myogenic constrictor responses to increases of transmural pressure. The decreased vascular reactivity and myogenic responses were reversible with the addition of 20-HETE. These data suggest that CYP4A1-derived 20-HETE facilitates myogenic constrictor responses in the mesenteric microcirculation and contributes to pressor mechanisms in SHR.
Adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of human heme oxygenase in rats decreases renal heme-dependent arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity
Abraham, N G; Jiang, S; Yang, L; Zand, B A; Laniado-Schwartzman, M; Marji, J; Drummond, G S; Kappas, A
Intravenous administration of an adenovirus human heme oxygenase (HO)-1 gene construct to rats resulted in functional expression of human HO-1 in brain, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. Because accurate assessment of human HO-1 mRNA in various tissues by Northern analysis is not sufficiently sensitive, we developed a method for quantifying human HO-1 mRNA copies with quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction techniques; this allowed us to use the same primers for both the sample and internal standard. Administration of the adenovirus human HO-1 gene resulted in the detection of human HO-1 mRNA in various tissues with the highest levels seen in the kidney followed, in order, by lung > liver > brain > heart. Human HO-1 was detectable for up to 4 weeks in all tissues studied. Administration of adenovirus human HO-1 resulted in maximal increase of HO activity after 1 to 2 weeks in rats. The increase in HO activity due to gene transfer also was associated with a parallel decrease (approximately 25%) in cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content and in CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, we investigated the possibility that the human HO-1 gene altered the expression of the endogenous rat enzyme after administration of cobalt chloride s.c. Cobalt chloride administration resulted in increased HO activity in all tissues examined in rats transduced with the human HO-1 gene to the same degree as in nontransduced rats. The metal was a more potent inducer of renal HO activity than was the adenoviral-mediated human HO-1 vector. The increase in HO activity after adenoviral-mediated human HO-1 transfer was associated with a decrease in microsomal heme-CYP and CYP activity. The increase in HO-1 activity after adenovirus-mediated human HO-1 gene transfer may prove useful as a means of selectively increasing enzyme activity in a specific organ and regulating homeostasis by modulation of vasoactive molecules such as carbon monoxide and bilirubin and, in addition, providing a means of delivering the human HO-1 gene for experimental purposes.