The Novel Conduit: Challenges of Esophagectomy After Bariatric Surgery
Metabolic surgery has been on the rise over the last 2 decades. As more literature has been being published regarding its efficacy in treating metabolic syndrome as well as advancements in surgical training and safety rise with it, metabolic surgery will in no doubt continue to increase in prevalence. Concomitantly, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is increasing. We present two cases of patients who are status post sleeve gastrectomy and require esophagectomy. These patients do not have the availability of a gastric conduit, and colon interposition graft was planned for their reconstructions. We here review the two unique case scenarios as well as an overview of colon interposition technique and workup considerations. The need this reconstruction technique will likely increase in the years to come and metabolic surgery and esophageal cancer both continue to rise.
Roux-en-Y Gastrojejunostomy: is it an effective treatment for complex Hiatal hernias in the morbidly obese?
BACKGROUND:Primary repair failure rates for hiatal hernias (HH) can reach up to 40%, this is especially high in the morbidly obese patient. There is no clear data on how to manage this patient subset. This paper evaluates the efficacy of Roux-N-Y Gastrojejunostomy (RNY GJ) for treatment of symptomatic HH. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of all patients who received a Roux-en-Y Gastrojejunostomy (RNY GJ) for HH at our institution between January 2016 and January 2021 was performed. Patient demographics, symptoms, and post-operative outcomes were recorded and univariate analysis was performed between preoperative and postoperative symptoms. RESULTS:Thirty-seven patients with a mean age of 56.9Â years (SD 11.8) underwent RNY GJ. Patients were mostly female (81.1%) with a mean BMI of 36.8 (SD 8.4). An 78.4% reduction in symptoms of either heartburn, dysphagia, or regurgitation was noted at follow up (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). CONCLUSIONS:RNY GJ represents a safe procedure for morbidly obese patients with hiatal hernias with no mortalities amongst our patient cohort along with a significant reduction in pre-operative symptoms and no symptomatic recurrences. RNY GJ should be considered as the operation of choice for repair for this patient population.
Obesity is Correlated to Prior Paraesophageal Repair Failure: Experience from a Non-University Tertiary Care Center
Ketorolac Use for Pain Management in Trauma Patients With Rib Fractures Does not Increase of Acute Kidney Injury or Incidence of Bleeding
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Ketorolac is useful in acute pain management to avoid opiate-related complications; however, some surgeons fear associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and bleeding despite a paucity of literature on ketorolac use in trauma patients. We hypothesized that our institution's use of intravenous ketorolac for rib fracture pain management did not increase the incidence of bleeding or AKI. METHODS:Rib fracture patients aged 15Â years and above admitted between January 2016-June 2018 were identified in our trauma registry along with frequency of bleeding events. AKI was defined as â‰¥ 1.5x increase in serum creatinine from baseline measured on the second day of admission (after 24Â hours of resuscitation) or an increase of â‰¥ .3Â mg/dL over a 48-hour period. Patients receiving ketorolac were compared to patients with no ketorolac use. RESULTS:= .03). Logistic regression demonstrated that ketorolac use was not an independent predictor for AKI but age and admission SBP < 90 were. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Use of ketorolac in this cohort of trauma patients with rib fractures did not increase the incidence of AKI or bleeding events.
Detection of third and sixth cranial nerve palsies with a novel method for eye tracking while watching a short film clip
OBJECT Automated eye movement tracking may provide clues to nervous system function at many levels. Spatial calibration of the eye tracking device requires the subject to have relatively intact ocular motility that implies function of cranial nerves (CNs) III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducent) and their associated nuclei, along with the multiple regions of the brain imparting cognition and volition. The authors have developed a technique for eye tracking that uses temporal rather than spatial calibration, enabling detection of impaired ability to move the pupil relative to normal (neurologically healthy) control volunteers. This work was performed to demonstrate that this technique may detect CN palsies related to brain compression and to provide insight into how the technique may be of value for evaluating neuropathological conditions associated with CN palsy, such as hydrocephalus or acute mass effect. METHODS The authors recorded subjects' eye movements by using an Eyelink 1000 eye tracker sampling at 500 Hz over 200 seconds while the subject viewed a music video playing inside an aperture on a computer monitor. The aperture moved in a rectangular pattern over a fixed time period. This technique was used to assess ocular motility in 157 neurologically healthy control subjects and 12 patients with either clinical CN III or VI palsy confirmed by neuro-ophthalmological examination, or surgically treatable pathological conditions potentially impacting these nerves. The authors compared the ratio of vertical to horizontal eye movement (height/width defined as aspect ratio) in normal and test subjects. RESULTS In 157 normal controls, the aspect ratio (height/width) for the left eye had a mean value +/- SD of 1.0117 +/- 0.0706. For the right eye, the aspect ratio had a mean of 1.0077 +/- 0.0679 in these 157 subjects. There was no difference between sexes or ages. A patient with known CN VI palsy had a significantly increased aspect ratio (1.39), whereas 2 patients with known CN III palsy had significantly decreased ratios of 0.19 and 0.06, respectively. Three patients with surgically treatable pathological conditions impacting CN VI, such as infratentorial mass effect or hydrocephalus, had significantly increased ratios (1.84, 1.44, and 1.34, respectively) relative to normal controls, and 6 patients with supratentorial mass effect had significantly decreased ratios (0.27, 0.53, 0.62, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.41, respectively). These alterations in eye tracking all reverted to normal ranges after surgical treatment of underlying pathological conditions in these 9 neurosurgical cases. CONCLUSIONS This proof of concept series of cases suggests that the use of eye tracking to detect CN palsy while the patient watches television or its equivalent represents a new capacity for this technology. It may provide a new tool for the assessment of multiple CNS functions that can potentially be useful in the assessment of awake patients with elevated intracranial pressure from hydrocephalus or trauma.
Attrition rates in neurosurgery residency: analysis of 1361 consecutive residents matched from 1990 to 1999
OBJECT The objective of this study is to determine neurosurgery residency attrition rates by sex of matched applicant and by type and rank of medical school attended. METHODS The study follows a cohort of 1361 individuals who matched into a neurosurgery residency program through the SF Match Fellowship and Residency Matching Service from 1990 to 1999. The main outcome measure was achievement of board certification as documented in the American Board of Neurological Surgery Directory of Diplomats. A secondary outcome measure was documentation of practicing medicine as verified by the American Medical Association DoctorFinder and National Provider Identifier websites. Overall, 10.7% (n = 146) of these individuals were women. Twenty percent (n = 266) graduated from a top 10 medical school (24% of women [35/146] and 19% of men [232/1215], p = 0.19). Forty-five percent (n = 618) were graduates of a public medical school, 50% (n = 680) of a private medical school, and 5% (n = 63) of an international medical school. At the end of the study, 0.2% of subjects (n = 3) were deceased and 0.3% (n = 4) were lost to follow-up. RESULTS The total residency completion rate was 86.0% (n = 1171) overall, with 76.0% (n = 111/146) of women and 87.2% (n = 1059/1215) of men completing residency. Board certification was obtained by 79.4% (n = 1081) of all individuals matching into residency between 1990 and 1999. Overall, 63.0% (92/146) of women and 81.3% (989/1215) of men were board certified. Women were found to be significantly more at risk (p < 0.005) of not completing residency or becoming board certified than men. Public medical school alumni had significantly higher board certification rates than private and international alumni (82.2% for public [508/618]; 77.1% for private [524/680]; 77.8% for international [49/63]; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in attrition for graduates of top 10-ranked institutions versus other institutions. There was no difference in number of years to achieve neurosurgical board certification for men versus women. CONCLUSIONS Overall, neurosurgery training attrition rates are low. Women have had greater attrition than men during and after neurosurgery residency training. International and private medical school alumni had higher attrition than public medical school alumni.