Poor Accuracy of Manually Derived Head Computed Tomography Parameters in Predicting Intracranial Hypertension After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
Frontera, Jennifer A; Fang, Taolin; Grayson, Kammi; Lalchan, Rebecca; Dickstein, Leah; Hussain, M Shazam; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron S; Mazzuchin, Daniel; Melmed, Kara R; Rutledge, Caleb; Zhou, Ting; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:The utility of head computed tomography (CT) in predicting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to be limited in traumatic brain injury; however, few data exist in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] or intraparenchymal hemorrhage [IPH]) who underwent external ventricular drain (EVD) placement. Head CT scans performed immediately prior to EVD placement were quantitatively reviewed for features suggestive of elevated ICP, including temporal horn diameter, bicaudate index, basal cistern effacement, midline shift, and global cerebral edema. The modified Fisher score (mFS), intraventricular hemorrhage score, and IPH volume were also measured, as applicable. We calculated the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these radiographic features for the coprimary outcomes of elevated ICP (> 20 mm Hg) at the time of EVD placement and at any time during the hospital stay. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant radiographic factors associated with elevated ICP. RESULTS:Of 608 patients with intracranial hemorrhages enrolled during the study time frame, 243 (40%) received an EVD and 165 (n = 107 SAH, n = 58 IPH) had a preplacement head CT scan available for rating. Elevated opening pressure and elevated ICP during hospitalization were recorded in 48 of 152 (29%) and 103 of 165 (62%), respectively. The presence of ≥ 1 radiographic feature had only 32% accuracy for identifying elevated opening pressure (PPV 30%, NPV 58%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.537, 95% asymptotic confidence interval [CI] 0.436-0.637, P = 0.466) and 59% accuracy for predicting elevated ICP during hospitalization (PPV 63%, NPV 40%, AUC 0.514, 95% asymptotic CI 0.391-0.638, P = 0.820). There was no significant association between the number of radiographic features and ICP elevation. Head CT scans without any features suggestive of elevated ICP occurred in 25 of 165 (15%) patients. However, 10 of 25 (40%) of these patients had elevated opening pressure, and 15 of 25 (60%) had elevated ICP during their hospital stay. In multivariable models, mFS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68) and global cerebral edema (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27-6.75) were significantly associated with elevated ICP; however, their accuracies were only 69% and 60%, respectively. All other individual radiographic features had accuracies between 38 and 58% for identifying intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:More than 50% of patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage without radiographic features suggestive of elevated ICP actually had ICP > 20 mm Hg during EVD placement or their hospital stay. Morphological head CT findings were only 32% and 59% accurate in identifying elevated opening pressure and ICP elevation during hospitalization, respectively.
Trajectories of Neurologic Recovery 12 Months After Hospitalization for COVID-19: A Prospective Longitudinal Study
Frontera, Jennifer A; Yang, Dixon; Medicherla, Chaitanya; Baskharoun, Samuel; Bauman, Kristie; Bell, Lena; Bhagat, Dhristie; Bondi, Steven; Chervinsky, Alexander; Dygert, Levi; Fuchs, Benjamin; Gratch, Daniel; Hasanaj, Lisena; Horng, Jennifer; Huang, Joshua; Jauregui, Ruben; Ji, Yuan; Kahn, D Ethan; Koch, Ethan; Lin, Jessica; Liu, Susan; Olivera, Anlys; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Snyder, Thomas; Stainman, Rebecca; Talmasov, Daniel; Thomas, Betsy; Valdes, Eduard; Zhou, Ting; Zhu, Yingrong; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Melmed, Kara; Meropol, Sharon B; Thawani, Sujata; Troxel, Andrea B; Yaghi, Shadi; Balcer, Laura J; Wisniewski, Thomas; Galetta, Steven
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Little is known about trajectories of recovery 12-months after hospitalization for severe COVID. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with and without neurological complications during index hospitalization for COVID-19 from March 10, 2020-May 20, 2020. Phone follow-up batteries were performed at 6- and 12-months post-COVID symptom onset. The primary 12-month outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications using multivariable ordinal analysis. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA) and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. Changes in outcome scores from 6 to 12-months were compared using non-parametric paired-samples sign test. RESULTS:Twelve-month follow-up was completed in N=242 patients (median age 65, 64% male, 34% intubated during hospitalization) and N=174 completed both 6- and 12-month follow-up. At 12-months 197/227 (87%) had â‰¥1 abnormal metric: mRS>0 (75%), Barthel<100 (64%), t-MoCAâ‰¤18 (50%), high anxiety (7%), depression (4%), fatigue (9%) and poor sleep (10%). 12-month mRS scores did not differ significantly among those with (N=113) or without (N=129) neurological complications during hospitalization after adjusting for age, sex, race, pre-COVID mRS and intubation status (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI0.8-2.5), though those with neurological complications had higher fatigue scores (T-score 47 vs 44, P=0.037). Significant improvements in outcome trajectories from 6- to 12-months were observed in t-MoCA scores (56% improved, median difference 1 point, P=0.002), and Neuro-QoL anxiety scores (45% improved, P=0.003). Non-significant improvements occurred in fatigue, sleep and depression scores in 48%, 48% and 38% of patients, respectively. Barthel and mRS scores remained unchanged between 6 and 12-months in >50% of patients. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:At 12-months post-hospitalization for severe COVID, 87% of patients had ongoing abnormalities in functional, cognitive or Neuro-QoL metrics and abnormal cognition persisted in 50% of patients without a prior history of dementia/cognitive abnormality. Only fatigue severity differed significantly between patients with or without neurological complications during index hospitalization. However, significant improvements in cognitive (t-MoCA) and anxiety (Neuro-QoL) scores occurred in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively, between 6- to 12-months. These results may not be generalizable to those with mild/moderate COVID.
Use of an opioid-sparing headache protocol for treating low-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients [Meeting Abstract]
Kahn, D E; Lord, A; Zhou, T; Scher, E; Frontera, J; Bhatt, P; Agarwal, S
INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) associated headaches are severe and challenging to manage. The use of sedating, high-dose opioids can cloud neurological assessments, leading to unnecessary testing and potentially increase the risk of dependence. We hypothesized that a tiered opioid sparing pain management protocol favoring NSAIDs and gabapentin for low grade SAH patients would decrease opioid use without adversely affecting headache severity scores.
METHOD(S): We performed a retrospective cohort study pre- and post-implementation of the opioid sparing protocol. Inclusion criteria included admission to NYU Langone-Brooklyn Hospital with Hunt Hess Grade 1 or 2 aneurysmal SAH on Day 3 of hospital admission as most patients received periprocedural sedation and analgesia during the first 2 days. The pre-implementation group (pre) was admitted from 8/2016 to 8/2017 and the post-implementation group (post) was admitted from 4/2019 to 4/2020. The two-year washout period was included because newly hired intensivists integrated elements of opioid-sparing protocols as part of their practice prior to the go-live date. We collected demographics, baseline admission characteristics, hospital complications, and past history of headaches and opioid use. From day 3-7, we tracked total use of morphine milligram equivalents (MME) of all opioids, acetaminophen, NSAIDS, barbiturates, and gabapentin. We recorded the highest (HP) and lowest (LP) visual analogue pain assessment scores in daily quartiles. Data analysis was completed with SPSS.
RESULT(S): 55 patients (n=24 pre and n=31 post) were eligible and enrolled in the study. 85 patients were excluded. Aneurysm location, surgical method, symptomatic vasospasm, and EVD placement were similar between groups. Hydrocephalus was more common in pre; EVD complications were more common in post. There were no documented stress ulcers nor re-hemorrhage attributed to medications. The protocol resulted in a 19% decrease in total average MME compared to baseline use ((21.7 vs 26.9, p=0.77), a 12% decrease in average HP (2.60 vs. 2.96, p=0.41), and a 30% decrease in average LP (0.63 vs. 0.90, p=0.16), although not statistically significant. 14 pre received barbiturates; 0 post.
CONCLUSION(S): Pain control with reduced opioid usage can be achieved with a tiered opioid sparing pain protocol
Toxic Metabolic Encephalopathy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
Frontera, Jennifer A; Melmed, Kara; Fang, Taolin; Granger, Andre; Lin, Jessica; Yaghi, Shadi; Zhou, Ting; Lewis, Ariane; Kurz, Sebastian; Kahn, D Ethan; de Havenon, Adam; Huang, Joshua; Czeisler, Barry M; Lord, Aaron; Meropol, Sharon B; Troxel, Andrea B; Wisniewski, Thomas; Balcer, Laura; Galetta, Steven
BACKGROUND:Toxic metabolic encephalopathy (TME) has been reported in 7-31% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, some reports include sedation-related delirium and few data exist on the etiology of TME. We aimed to identify the prevalence, etiologies, and mortality rates associated with TME in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study among patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at four New York City hospitals in the same health network between March 1, 2020, and May 20, 2020. TME was diagnosed in patients with altered mental status off sedation or after an adequate sedation washout. Patients with structural brain disease, seizures, or primary neurological diagnoses were excluded. The coprimary outcomes were the prevalence of TME stratified by etiology and in-hospital mortality (excluding comfort care only patients) assessed by using a multivariable time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, race, sex, intubation, intensive care unit requirement, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, hospital location, and date of admission. RESULTS:Among 4491 patients with COVID-19, 559 (12%) were diagnosed with TME, of whom 435 of 559 (78%) developed encephalopathy immediately prior to hospital admission. The most common etiologies were septic encephalopathy (nâ€‰=â€‰247 of 559 [62%]), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (nâ€‰=â€‰331 of 559 [59%]), and uremia (nâ€‰=â€‰156 of 559 [28%]). Multiple etiologies were present in 435 (78%) patients. Compared with those without TME (nâ€‰=â€‰3932), patients with TME were older (76 vs. 62Â years), had dementia (27% vs. 3%) or psychiatric history (20% vs. 10%), were more often intubated (37% vs. 20%), had a longer hospital length of stay (7.9 vs. 6.0Â days), and were less often discharged home (25% vs. 66% [all Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001]). Excluding comfort care patients (nâ€‰=â€‰267 of 4491 [6%]) and after adjustment for confounders, TME remained associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (nâ€‰=â€‰128 of 425 [30%] patients with TME died, compared with nâ€‰=â€‰600 of 3799 [16%] patients without TME; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.52, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.031), and TME due to hypoxemia conferred the highest risk (nâ€‰=â€‰97 of 233 [42%] patients with HIE died, compared with nâ€‰=â€‰631 of 3991 [16%] patients without HIE; aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.00, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.001). CONCLUSIONS:TME occurred in one in eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was typically multifactorial, and was most often due to hypoxemia, sepsis, and uremia. After we adjustment for confounding factors, TME was associated with a 24% increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
Protocolized Urine Sampling is Associated with Reduced Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study
Frontera, Jennifer A; Wang, Erwin; Phillips, Michael; Radford, Martha; Sterling, Stephanie; Delorenzo, Karen; Saxena, Archana; Yaghi, Shadi; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron S; Weisstuch, Joseph
BACKGROUND:Standard urine sampling and testing techniques do not mitigate against detection of colonization, resulting in false positive catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). We aim to evaluate if a novel protocol for urine sampling and testing reduces rates of CAUTI. METHODS:A pre-intervention and post-intervention study with a contemporaneous control group was conducted at two campuses (test and control) of the same academic medical center. The test campus implemented a protocol requiring urinary catheter removal prior to urine sampling from a new catheter or sterile straight catheterization, along with urine bacteria and pyuria screening prior to culture. Primary outcomes were test campus CAUTI rates compared between each 9-month pre- and post-intervention epoch. Secondary outcomes included the percent reductions in CAUTI rates compared between the test campus and a propensity-score matched cohort at the control campus. RESULTS:Â A total of 7,991 patients from the test campus were included in the primary analysis, and 4,264 were included in the propensity-score matched secondary analysis. In primary analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 77% (6.6 to 1.5), CAUTI/1000-catheter days by 63% (5.9 to 2.2) and urinary catheter days/patient by 37% (1.1 to 0.69, all Pâ‰¤0.001). In propensity score-matched analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 82% at the test campus versus 57% at the control campus, CAUTI/1000 catheter-days declined by 68% versus 57% and catheter-days/patient decreased by 44% versus 1% (all P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Â Protocolized urine sampling and testing aimed at minimizing contamination by colonization was associated with significantly reduced CAUTI infection rates and urinary catheter days.
Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System
Kvernland, Alexandra; Kumar, Arooshi; Yaghi, Shadi; Raz, Eytan; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane; Czeisler, Barry; Kahn, D Ethan; Zhou, Ting; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Riina, Howard A; Shapiro, Maksim; Nossek, Erez; Nelson, Peter K; Tanweer, Omar; Gordon, David; Jain, Rajan; Dehkharghani, Seena; Henninger, Nils; de Havenon, Adam; Grory, Brian Mac; Lord, Aaron; Melmed, Kara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. RESULTS:During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰.001) and 10.0% in historical controls (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰.001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
A prospective study of long-term outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without neurological complications
Frontera, Jennifer A; Yang, Dixon; Lewis, Ariane; Patel, Palak; Medicherla, Chaitanya; Arena, Vito; Fang, Taolin; Andino, Andres; Snyder, Thomas; Madhavan, Maya; Gratch, Daniel; Fuchs, Benjamin; Dessy, Alexa; Canizares, Melanie; Jauregui, Ruben; Thomas, Betsy; Bauman, Kristie; Olivera, Anlys; Bhagat, Dhristie; Sonson, Michael; Park, George; Stainman, Rebecca; Sunwoo, Brian; Talmasov, Daniel; Tamimi, Michael; Zhu, Yingrong; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Dygert, Levi; Ristic, Milan; Ishii, Haruki; Valdes, Eduard; Omari, Mirza; Gurin, Lindsey; Huang, Joshua; Czeisler, Barry M; Kahn, D Ethan; Zhou, Ting; Lin, Jessica; Lord, Aaron S; Melmed, Kara; Meropol, Sharon; Troxel, Andrea B; Petkova, Eva; Wisniewski, Thomas; Balcer, Laura; Morrison, Chris; Yaghi, Shadi; Galetta, Steven
BACKGROUND:Little is known regarding long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a prospective study of 6-month outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with new neurological complications during hospitalization who survived were propensity score-matched to COVID-19 survivors without neurological complications hospitalized during the same period. The primary 6-month outcome was multivariable ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale(mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (ADLs;Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. RESULTS:Of 606 COVID-19 patients with neurological complications, 395 survived hospitalization and were matched to 395 controls; NÂ =Â 196 neurological patients and NÂ =Â 186 controls completed follow-up. Overall, 346/382 (91%) patients had at least one abnormal outcome: 56% had limited ADLs, 50% impaired cognition, 47% could not return to work and 62% scored worse than average on â‰¥1 Neuro-QoL scale (worse anxiety 46%, sleep 38%, fatigue 36%, and depression 25%). In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications had worse 6-month mRS (median 4 vs. 3 among controls, adjusted OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.23-3.48, PÂ =Â 0.02), worse ADLs (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.29-0.74, PÂ =Â 0.01) and were less likely to return to work than controls (41% versus 64%, PÂ =Â 0.04). Cognitive and Neuro-QOL metrics were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Abnormalities in functional outcomes, ADLs, anxiety, depression and sleep occurred in over 90% of patients 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications during index hospitalization had significantly worse 6-month functional outcomes than those without.
A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in New York City
Frontera, Jennifer A; Sabadia, Sakinah; Lalchan, Rebecca; Fang, Taolin; Flusty, Brent; Millar-Vernetti, Patricio; Snyder, Thomas; Berger, Stephen; Yang, Dixon; Granger, Andre; Morgan, Nicole; Patel, Palak; Gutman, Josef; Melmed, Kara; Agarwal, Shashank; Bokhari, Matthew; Andino, Andres; Valdes, Eduard; Omari, Mirza; Kvernland, Alexandra; Lillemoe, Kaitlyn; Chou, Sherry H-Y; McNett, Molly; Helbok, Raimund; Mainali, Shraddha; Fink, Ericka L; Robertson, Courtney; Schober, Michelle; Suarez, Jose I; Ziai, Wendy; Menon, David; Friedman, Daniel; Friedman, David; Holmes, Manisha; Huang, Joshua; Thawani, Sujata; Howard, Jonathan; Abou-Fayssal, Nada; Krieger, Penina; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Czeisler, Barry M; Torres, Jose; Yaghi, Shadi; Ishida, Koto; Scher, Erica; de Havenon, Adam; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Liu, Mengling; Wisniewski, Thomas; Troxel, Andrea B; Balcer, Laura; Galetta, Steven
OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among COVID-19 patients, we prospectively followed hospitalized SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, multi-center, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the NYC metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS:Of 4,491 COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were: toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis, or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all P<0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA-scores, intubation, past history, medical complications, medications and comfort-care-status, COVID-19 patients with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, P<0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
Prevalence and Impact of Hyponatremia in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in New York City
Frontera, Jennifer A; Valdes, Eduard; Huang, Joshua; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Melmed, Kara; Czeisler, Barry M; Yaghi, Shadi; Scher, Erica; Wisniewski, Thomas; Balcer, Laura; Hammer, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Hyponatremia occurs in up to 30% of patients with pneumonia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hyponatremia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 and the impact on outcome is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence, predictors, and impact on outcome of mild, moderate, and severe admission hyponatremia compared with normonatremia among coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Four New York City hospitals that are part of the same health network. PATIENTS/METHODS:Hospitalized, laboratory-confirmed adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 13, 2020. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Hyponatremia was categorized as mild (sodium: 130-134 mmol/L), moderate (sodium: 121-129 mmol/L), or severe (sodium: â‰¤ 120 mmol/L) versus normonatremia (135-145 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the association of increasing severity of hyponatremia and in-hospital mortality assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Secondary outcomes included encephalopathy, acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, and discharge home compared across sodium levels using Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. In exploratory analysis, the association of sodium levels and interleukin-6 levels (which has been linked to nonosmotic release of vasopressin) was assessed. Among 4,645 patient encounters, hyponatremia (sodium < 135 mmol/L) occurred in 1,373 (30%) and 374 of 1,373 (27%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia occurred in 1,032 (22%), 305 (7%), and 36 (1%) patients, respectively. Each level of worsening hyponatremia conferred 43% increased odds of in-hospital death after adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, past medical history, admission laboratory abnormalities, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, renal failure, encephalopathy, and mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; p = 0.012). Increasing severity of hyponatremia was associated with encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation, and decreased probability of discharge home (all p < 0.001). Higher interleukin-6 levels correlated with lower sodium levels (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS:Hyponatremia occurred in nearly a third of coronavirus disease 2019 patients, was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, and was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy and mechanical ventilation.
Pearls and Oy-sters: Leukoencephalopathy in critically ill COVID-19 patients
Huang, Hao; Eichelberger, Hillary; Chan, Monica; Valdes, Eduard; Kister, Ilya; Krupp, Lauren; Weinberg, Harold; Galetta, Steven; Frontera, Jennifer; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron; Lewis, Ariane