Sustaining PrEP Prescriptions at a Safety-Net Hospital in New York City During COVID-19: Lessons Learned
Pitts, Robert A; Ban, Kaoon; Greene, Richard E; Kapadia, Farzana; Braithwaite, R Scott
To understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on PrEP services, we reviewed PrEP prescriptions at NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue from July 2019 through July 2021. PrEP prescriptions were examined as PrEP person-equivalents (PrEP PE) in order to account for the variable time of refill duration (i.e., 1-3 months). To assess "PrEP coverage", we calculated PrEP medication possession ratios (MPR) while patients were under study observation. Pre-clinic closure, mean PrEP PE = 244.2 (IQR 189.2, 287.5; median = 252.5) were observed. Across levels of clinic closures, mean PrEP PE = 247.3, (IQR 215.5, 265.4; median = 219.9) during 100% clinic closure, 255.4 (IQR 224, 284.3; median = 249.0) during 80% closure, and 274.6 (IQR 273.0, 281.0; median = 277.2) during 50% closure were observed. Among patients continuously prescribed PrEP pre-COVID-19, the mean MPR mean declined from 83% (IQR 72-100%; median = 100%) to 63% (IQR 35-97%; median = 66%) after the onset of COVID-19. For patients newly initiated on PrEP after the onset of COVID-19, the mean MPR was 73% (IQR 41-100%; median = 100%). Our ability to sustain PrEP provisions, as measured by both PrEP PE and MPR, can likely be attributed to our pre-COVID-19 system for PrEP delivery, which emphasizes navigation, same-day initiation, and primary care integration. In the era of COVID-19 as well as future unforeseen healthcare disruptions, PrEP programs must be robust and flexible in order to sustain PrEP delivery.
Incarceration, Social Support Networks, and Health among Black Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women: Evidence from the HPTN 061 Study
Scheidell, Joy D; Kapadia, Farzana; Turpin, Rodman E; Mazumdar, Medha; Dyer, Typhanye V; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Cleland, Charles M; Brewer, Russell; Parker, Sharon D; Irvine, Natalia M; Remch, Molly; Mayer, Kenneth H; Khan, Maria R
Support from social networks buffers against negative effects of stress but is disrupted by incarceration. Few studies examine incarceration, social support networks, and health among Black sexual minority men (BSMM) and Black transgender women (BTW). We conducted a secondary analysis using HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (HPTN 061), a sample of BSMM/BTW recruited from six US cities. We measured associations between recent incarceration reported at six months follow-up and social support networks at twelve months follow-up, and cross-sectional associations between support networks and twelve-month health outcomes (e.g., sexual partnerships, substance use, healthcare access and depressive symptoms). Among the analytic sample (N = 1169), recent incarceration was associated with small medical support networks (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.01, 1.34) and small financial support networks (aRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.35). Support networks were associated with multiple partnerships (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), unhealthy alcohol use (aPR 1.20, 95% CI 0.96, 1.51), and depressive symptoms (aPR 1.16, 95% CI 0.99, 1.36). Incarceration adversely impacts social support networks of BSMM/BTW, and support networks were associated with a range of important health outcomes.
Predictors of Anal High-Risk HPV Infection Across Time in a Cohort of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in New York City, 2015-2020
LoSchiavo, Caleb; D'Avanzo, Paul A; Emmert, Connor; Krause, Kristen D; Ompad, Danielle C; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
Cisgender sexual minority men (SMM) and transgender women are disproportionately vulnerable to HPV-related anal cancer, but little is known about longitudinal predictors of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in this population. As such, this analysis aims to identify factors associated with incident anal hrHPV infection in a diverse cohort of young SMM and transgender women. This study of HPV infection, nested within a larger cohort study, took place between October 2015 and January 2020. Participants completed a brief computer survey assessing HPV symptomatology, risk, and prevention alongside multi-site testing, in addition to biannual cohort study assessments. In the analytic sample of 137 participants, 31.6% tested positive for an anal hrHPV infection, with 27.0% and 29.9% testing positive for incident anal hrHPV infections at Visits 2 and 3, respectively. When adjusting for time between study visits, participants had significantly greater odds of incident anal hrHPV at Visit 2 if they had a concurrent HSV infection (AOR = 5.08 [1.43, 18.00]). At Visit 3, participants had significantly greater odds of incident anal hrHPV infection if they reported a greater number of sex partners in the previous month (AOR = 1.25 [1.03, 1.51]). Prevalence of cancer-causing HPV at baseline was high and many participants tested positive for additional types of anal hrHPV at subsequent visits. Risk for newly detected anal hrHPV infection was significantly associated with biological and behavioral factors. Our findings strongly indicate a need for programs to increase uptake of HPV vaccination and provide HPV-related health education for sexual and gender minorities.
Social Engagement and Mental Health Symptoms Across Asian American Ethnic Groups During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Islam, Jessica Y; Awan, Iman; Kapadia, Farzana
Background/UNASSIGNED:To examine social engagement and mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic across Asian American (AA) ethnic groups. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Data from three waves of the nationally representative COVID-19 Household Impact Survey (4/20/2020-6/8/2020) were used to describe social engagement and mental health symptoms during the pandemic. Associations between mental health and social engagement were assessed via multinomial logistic regression. Results/UNASSIGNED:In this sample of 312 AAs (36.9% Chinese American, 30.9% South Asian American, 20.1% Filipino/Vietnamese American, and 12.0% Japanese/Korean American), daily communication with neighbors declined for Chinese, South Asian and Filipino/Vietnamese Americans but increased for Japanese/Korean Americans (P=.012) whereas communication with friends/family increased only for Filipino/Vietnamese, Japanese/Korean and South Asian Americans (P<0.001). Differences in self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and hopelessness were observed across AA ethnic groups. In adjusted models, lower social engagement was associated with frequent (3-4 days/week) depressive symptoms during the preceding week (cOR:3.26, 95%CI:1.01-10.5). This association was heightened for Asian men (cOR:14.22, 95%CI:3.62-55.8). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Heterogeneity of social engagement and mental health symptoms across AA ethnicities was observed. Understanding associations between social engagement and mental health within different communities is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate mental health treatment and care.
Capturing missed HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis opportunities-sexually transmitted infection diagnoses in the emergency department
Mclaughlin, Stephanie E; Kapadia, Farzana; Greene, Richard E; Pitts, Robert
The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) be considered for all patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Emergency departments (EDs) are an important site for diagnosis and treatment of STIs for under-served populations. Consequently, we identified 377 patients diagnosed with a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and/or syphilis) at a major New York City emergency department between 1/1/2014 and 7/30/2017 to examine associations between key sociodemographic characteristics and missed opportunities for PrEP provision. In this sample, 299 (79%) emergency department patients missed their medical follow-up 90 days after STI diagnosis, as recommended. Results from adjusted generalized estimating equation regression models indicate that patients >45Â yo (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9) and those with a primary care provider in the hospital system (aOR = 6.8, 95% CI 3.8-12.0) were more likely to return for follow-up visits, whereas Black patients (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.77) were less likely to return for follow-up visits. These findings indicate that lack of STI treatment follow-up visits are significantly missed opportunities for PrEP provision and comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus prevention care.
Racial and ethnic disparities in "stop-and-frisk" experience among young sexual minority men in New York City
Khan, Maria R; Kapadia, Farzana; Geller, Amanda; Mazumdar, Medha; Scheidell, Joy D; Krause, Kristen D; Martino, Richard J; Cleland, Charles M; Dyer, Typhanye V; Ompad, Danielle C; Halkitis, Perry N
Although racial/ethnic disparities in police contact are well documented, less is known about other dimensions of inequity in policing. Sexual minority groups may face disproportionate police contact. We used data from the P18 Cohort Study (Version 2), a study conducted to measure determinants of inequity in STI/HIV risk among young sexual minority men (YSMM) in New York City, to measure across-time trends, racial/ethnic disparities, and correlates of self-reported stop-and-frisk experience over the cohort follow-up (2014-2019). Over the study period, 43% reported stop-and-frisk with higher levels reported among Black (47%) and Hispanic/Latinx (45%) than White (38%) participants. Stop-and-frisk levels declined over follow-up for each racial/ethnic group. The per capita rates among P18 participants calculated based on self-reported stop-and-frisk were much higher than rates calculated based on New York City Police Department official counts. We stratified respondents' ZIP codes of residence into tertiles of per capita stop rates and observed pronounced disparities in Black versus White stop-and-frisk rates, particularly in neighborhoods with low or moderate levels of stop-and-frisk activity. YSMM facing the greatest economic vulnerability and mental disorder symptoms were most likely to report stop-and-frisk. Among White respondents levels of past year stop-and-frisk were markedly higher among those who reported past 30 day marijuana use (41%) versus those reporting no use (17%) while among Black and Hispanic/Latinx respondents stop-and-frisk levels were comparable among those reporting marijuana use (38%) versus those reporting no use (31%). These findings suggest inequity in policing is observed not only among racial/ethnic but also sexual minority groups and that racial/ethnic YSMM, who are at the intersection of multiple minority statuses, face disproportionate risk. Because the most socially vulnerable experience disproportionate stop-and-frisk risk, we need to reach YSMM with community resources to promote health and wellbeing as an alternative to targeting this group with stressful and stigmatizing police exposure.
Misinformation, Gendered Perceptions, and Low Healthcare Provider Communication Around HPV and the HPV Vaccine Among Young Sexual Minority Men in New York City: The P18 Cohort Study
Jaiswal, Jessica; LoSchiavo, Caleb; Maiolatesi, Anthony; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection among adults in the United States, and can cause several types of cancer. This is of particular concern for sexual minority men, as their increased risk of HIV acquisition increases risk for HPV and HPV-associated cancers, particularly when coupled with low rates of HPV vaccination. As part of a larger study of the syndemic of HIV, substance use, and mental health among young sexual minority men in New York City, we sought to explore what sexual minority men know about HPV and the HPV vaccine, along with their experiences have been communicating about the virus and vaccine. We interviewed 38 young sexual minority men with diverse sociodemographic characteristics and identified three main themes: low knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination, highly gendered misconceptions about HPV only affecting women, and lack of communication from healthcare providers about HPV. The prevalence of incorrect HPV knowledge, coupled with inadequate education and vaccination in healthcare settings, indicates a missed opportunity for HPV prevention in a high-risk and high-need population.
Reply to Fernandez-Huerta et al [Letter]
Greene, Richard E; Abbott, Collette E; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
The Public Health of Pleasure: Going Beyond Disease Prevention [Editorial]
Landers, Stewart; Kapadia, Farzana
Healthcare usage and satisfaction among young adult gay men in New York city
Griffin, Marybec; Cahill, Sean; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.
Satisfaction greatly impacts decisions about where and how to access healthcare. This cross-sectional study uses data gathered from young adult gay men in New York City. Findings indicate that participants who experienced discrimination in a healthcare setting were less likely to prefer coordinated healthcare. Participants who disclosed their sexual orientation and were comfortable discussing sexual activity with their provider were more likely to agree that their healthcare needs were adequately addressed. The healthcare system does not fully address the healthcare needs of gay men. Preferences for coordination of care, nondisclosure of sexual orientation, and low levels of satisfaction with services further discourage healthcare usage among this population.