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Giving and Receiving Meaningful Feedback in Orthopaedic Surgery Training

Rozell, Joshua C; Owusu-Sarpong, Stephane; Robin, Joseph X; Karamitopoulos, Mara
The process of giving and receiving feedback in orthopaedic surgery training programs is distinctly unique from any other job. Trainees are required to meet certain milestones, and faculty are responsible for the caliber of surgical skills of their graduating trainees, yet there are rarely standardized practices and guidance for providing real-time feedback. Furthermore, institutional educational programs for faculty on giving meaningful feedback are lacking. The purpose of this article was to understand how feedback is defined, how to appropriately involve the learner in the process to foster active engagement rather than destructive thinking, and to characterize important principles that can elevate one's learning and self-reflection to the fullest potential.
PMID: 37506320
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 5613962

A history of eponym usage in hip and pelvis radiography part 1: the paediatric hip

Bi, Andrew S; Carter, Cordelia; Price, Andrew E; Litrenta, Jody; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Castañeda, Pablo G
Eponyms, while inherently flawed, remain a constant in medical vernacular, especially in orthopaedic surgery. It is essential to understand how these eponyms came to be named and for whom they were named after in order to know the correct usage and definition of these eponyms. In this first part, we describe the history of eponym usage in paediatric hip radiography; who, when, what, where, and how. We hope to provide a historical perspective of interest, resolve any controversies in semantic definitions, and create a comprehensive library of eponymous terms related to paediatric hip radiography.
PMID: 36721919
ISSN: 1724-6067
CID: 5420052

Effect of a Protocol to Reduce Radiographic Imaging in Pediatric Patients With Suspected Fractures

Schlacter, Jamie A; Roussos, Demetrios; Masrouha, Karim; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Carter, Cordelia; Price, Andrew; Castañeda, Pablo; Litrenta, Jody
BACKGROUND:Children with suspected fractures are typically evaluated with multiple x-rays. This approach can add time, discomfort, and radiation exposure without clinical benefit. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a focused radiographic protocol could reduce the number of x-rays performed without missing any fractures. METHODS:Pediatric patients presenting at 2 sites within an academic medical center [urgent care (UC) and the emergency department(ED)] for a suspected fracture were identified. There were 495 patients (UC, 409; ED, 86) over a 3-month period. A retrospective chart review was performed to characterize the standard x-rays performed. Using this data, a simplified protocol was developed and distributed. Subsequently, 333 patients (UC, 259; ED, 74) were evaluated over the same period 1-year later. The main outcome measures included the final diagnosis, the total number of x-rays, the number of anatomic areas imaged, visit length, and the time for additional trips to radiology. Charts were reviewed to identify any missed injuries. Welch 2-sample t tests and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:After implementing the radiographic protocol, there was a significant reduction in the number of x-ray views, 3.4 versus 5.1 (P<0.001). There was a decrease in imaging of multiple anatomic areas with the largest reduction occurring in patients presenting with elbow injuries (9% vs. 44%, P<0.001). No difference was found in the rate of patients sent back to radiology (6% vs. 7%, P=0.67). However, among patients presenting with outside imaging, significantly fewer were sent to radiology for additional x-rays (29% vs. 50%, P<0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A simple radiographic protocol for evaluating pediatric patients with suspected fractures safely led to a decrease in the overall number of x-rays without missing any injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 36084624
ISSN: 1539-2570
CID: 5337352

Parasport: Effects on Musculoskeletal Function and Injury Patterns

Sacks, Hayley; Wu, Meagan; Carter, Cordelia; Karamitopoulos, Mara
➤/UNASSIGNED:Sports participation can improve gait, muscle strength, and functional abilities in patients with a wide variety of disabilities. Para athletes are also at substantial risk for injury during sports participation. ➤/UNASSIGNED:Ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy are at risk for soft-tissue injuries about the knee as well as foot and ankle injuries. Wheelchair athletes are at risk for osteoporotic fractures and shoulder girdle injuries. Limb-deficient athletes are prone to low back pain and overuse injuries of the contralateral extremity. ➤/UNASSIGNED:Para athletes are vulnerable to abuse during sports participation, and physicians should promptly report any possible abuse or mistreatment. ➤/UNASSIGNED:Orthopaedic surgeons should understand disability and sport-specific risk factors for injury in para athletes in order to initiate early management and injury prevention protocols.
PMID: 35975928
ISSN: 1535-1386
CID: 5299942

Orthopedic Surgery Resident Development and Implementation of a Virtual High-School Mentorship Program During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Kugelman, David; Owusu-Sarpong, Stephane; Lott, Ariana; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Strauss, Eric J; Schwarzkopf, Ran
As the world continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, health care providers are committed to providing care not only to our patients but also to our community. Schools in New York City (NYC) went remote on March 15, 2020. This can prove detrimental to student development and education. Numerous leaders in education and public health have noted that the remote learning will further widen educational and income disparities in those from underserved and underrepresented areas. A group of orthopedic residents who attended NYC public schools and were current house staff at a major academic tertiary medical center in NYC developed and implemented a virtual high-school mentorship program. This program incorporated weekly lectures and discussions given by health care providers to students interested in health care from NYC public high schools. The goal of this program was to provide mentorship during the COVID pandemic to a high-school audience where greater than 80% of students are considered to be living below the poverty level. Although school is now back in session, these programs should be continued in person. It is the aim of the authors that other orthopedic residents and health care providers implement similar programs in their communities.
PMID: 36030452
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5331992

Transition program: Initial implementation with adults with neuromuscular conditions

Del Rosario, Eduardo; Bodden, Adella; Sala, Debra A; Goodman, Aline; Lam, Connie; Karamitopoulos, Mara
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To identify current medical and psychosocial needs and to examine the effectiveness of healthcare transition program for adult-aged patients with neuromuscular conditions transitioning from pediatric to adult services. DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:At Neuromuscular Transition Clinic visit, 46 patients were evaluated and referred to adult-based providers, if did not currently have one, from an acquired list of interested clinicians. At mean follow-up of 22 months, 42 were interviewed by phone regarding referrals for Core Services (primary care, physiatry, dental care and gynecology), Medical Specialties and Rehabilitation Services. Mean age was 30 years with 62% males. Majority (74%) had cerebral palsy. Sixty percent were non-ambulatory. RESULTS:As per protocol, all were indicated to need Core Services. Eighty-three percent already had adult primary care provider. Most referrals were given for physiatry (62%), vocational training (100%), and occupational therapy (88%). At follow-up, visits were completed most frequently with adult provider for primary care (100%), occupational therapy (78%), and neurology (75%). Referred provider was seen 100% for physiatry, neurology, physical therapy, occupational therapy and vocational training. Of the total 125 referrals given across all services, 73 (58%) participants had completed a visit with an adult provider. CONCLUSIONS:As only about 60% transitioned to adult-based services after referral, healthcare transition remains challenging and requires tailoring of services according to patients' needs, staff and willing-and-available adult-based providers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Transitioning healthcare of patients with neuromuscular conditions from pediatric- to adult-based providers remains challenging. This clinical specialty requires tailoring of services based on patient's needs, and availability of adult-based providers and resources.
PMID: 35939953
ISSN: 1532-8449
CID: 5286602

Musculoskeletal health considerations for the transgender athlete

Birnbaum, Amy; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Carter, Cordelia W
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:In addition to the familiar sports-related injuries and conditions experienced by cisgender athletes, transgender athletes may also face unique challenges to maintaining their musculoskeletal health. Encouraging sports medicine professionals to become familiar with accepted nomenclature and terminology related to transgender athletes will enable open communication on the field, in the athletic training facility, and office. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Understanding contemporary medical and surgical gender-affirming treatments and the unique ways in which the musculoskeletal system might be affected by each - such as impairments in bone health, changes in ligamentous function and the potential increased risk for deep venous thromboembolism - is essential for provision of optimal musculoskeletal care to transgender athletes. Knowledge of the existing participation policies for transgender athletes is also key for enabling sports medicine professionals to effectively counsel athletes about the need for specialized protective equipment. Additionally, this knowledge is important for appropriately managing therapeutic use exemptions in the competitive sports setting. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:This article provides an overview of the current accepted nomenclature, common gender-affirming medical and surgical treatments, unique musculoskeletal health considerations, and participation policies for transgender athletes.
PMID: 35373697
ISSN: 2326-3660
CID: 5204782

Impact of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion rate in children with cerebral palsy undergoing hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies

Masrouha, Karim Z; Shabin, Zabrina M; Bhutada, Kiran; Sala, Debra A; Godfried, David H; Karamitopoulos, Mara S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic lysine analogue, has been used in orthopedic procedures to limit blood loss and prevent allogeneic blood transfusions. However, data are scarce on its use in hip reconstruction of patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This study examines the effect of TXA on patients with CP undergoing hip reconstruction with at least two osteotomies. METHODS:This is a single-center, retrospective study of patients with CP who underwent hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies from January 2013 to April 2019. There were 43 patients, with a mean age of 9.9 years. Age, procedure, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin/hematocrit, estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusions and length of stay were recorded. The patients were split into the following two groups: 24 patients who had received intraoperative TXA and 19 who had not. RESULTS:Age, EBL, mean preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin or hematocrit, preoperative to postoperative hematocrit drop, and length of stay were similar for the two groups (p > 0.05). The risk for intraoperative transfusion (21 vs. 17%), postoperative transfusion (26 vs. 8%), and any transfusion (42 vs. 21%) appeared to be greater in the group that did not receive TXA, but this difference did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study shows patients with CP undergoing hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies; the use of TXA, while not statistically significant, shows a trend toward a decreased need for allogeneic blood transfusion.
PMID: 33839928
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4845572

Representation of Women in Academic Orthopaedic Leadership: Where Are We Now?

Bi, Andrew S; Fisher, Nina D; Bletnitsky, Nikolas; Rao, Naina; Egol, Kenneth A; Karamitopoulos, Mara
BACKGROUND:Women have long been underrepresented in orthopaedic surgery; however, there is a lack of quantitative data on the representation of women in orthopaedic academic program leadership. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:(1) What is the proportion of women in leadership roles in orthopaedic surgery departments and residency programs in the United States (specifically, chairs, vice chairs, program directors, assistant program directors, and subspecialty division chiefs)? (2) How do women and men leaders compare in terms of years in position in those roles, years in practice, academic rank, research productivity as represented by publications, and subspecialty breakdown? (3) Is there a difference between men and women in the chair or program director role in terms of whether they are working in that role at institutions where they attended medical school or completed their residency or fellowship? METHODS:We identified 161 academic orthopaedic residency programs from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website. Data (gender, length of time in position, length of time in practice, professorship appointment, research productivity as indirectly measured via PubMed publications, and subspecialty) were collected for chairs, vice chairs, program directors, assistant program directors, and subspecialty division chiefs in July 2020 to control for changes in leadership. Information not provided by the ACGME and PubMed was found using orthopaedic program websites and the specific leader's curriculum vitae. Complete data were obtained for chairs and program directors, but there were missing data points for vice chairs, assistant program directors, and division chiefs. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS using independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS:Three percent (4 of 153) of chairs, 8% (5 of 61) of vice chairs, 11% (18 of 161) of program directors, 27% (20 of 75) of assistant program directors, and 9% (45 of 514) of division chiefs were women. There were varying degrees of missing data points for vice chairs, assistant program directors, and division chiefs as not all programs reported or have those positions. Women chairs had fewer years in their position than men (2 ± 1 versus 9 ± 7 [95% confidence interval -9.3 to -5.9]; p < 0.001). Women vice chairs more commonly specialized in hand or tumor compared with men (40% [2 of 5] and 40% [2 of 5] versus 11% [6 of 56] and 4% [2 of 56], respectively; X2(9) = 16; p = 0.04). Women program directors more commonly specialized in tumor or hand compared with men (33% [6 of 18] and 17% [3 of 18] versus 6% [9 of 143] and 11% [16 of 143], respectively; X2(9) = 20; p = 0.02). Women assistant program directors had fewer years in practice (9 ± 4 years versus 14 ± 11 years [95% CI -10.5 to 1.6]; p = 0.045) and fewer publications (11 ± 7 versus 30 ± 48 [95% CI -32.9 to -5.8]; p = 0.01) than men. Women division chiefs had fewer years in practice and publications than men and were most prevalent in tumor and pediatrics (21% [10 of 48] and 16% [9 of 55], respectively) and least prevalent in spine and adult reconstruction (2% [1 of 60] and 1% [1 of 70], respectively) (X2(9) = 26; p = 0.001). Women program directors were more likely than men to stay at the same institution they studied at for medical school (39% [7 of 18] versus 14% [20 of 143]; odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.4 to 11.3]; p = 0.02) and trained at for residency (61% [11 of 18] versus 42% [60 of 143]; OR 2.2 [95% CI 0.8 to 5.9]; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION:The higher percentage of women in junior leadership positions in orthopaedic surgery, with the data available, is a promising finding. Hand, tumor, and pediatrics appear to be orthopaedic subspecialties with a higher percentage of women. However, more improvement is needed to achieve gender parity in orthopaedics overall, and more information is needed in terms of publicly available information on gender representation in orthopaedic leadership. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Proportional representation of women in orthopaedics is essential for quality musculoskeletal care, and proportional representation in leadership may help encourage women to apply to the specialty. Our findings suggest movement in an improving direction in this regard, though more progress is needed.
PMID: 34398847
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5147012

Early Experience with Virtual Pediatric Orthopedics in New York CityPearls for Incorporating Telemedicine into Your Practice

Carter, Cordelia W.; Herrero, Christina P.; Bloom, David A.; Karamitopoulos, Mara; Castañeda, Pablo G.
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize challenges and benefits to the use of tele-medicine for the treatment of pediatric orthopedic patients during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS:A novel survey was sent to all faculty members at an academic pediatric orthopedic practice in New York City regarding their use of telemedicine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS:Faculty members performed 227 unique tele-health visits with pediatric orthopedic patients over a 7-week period in early 2020, and this formed the basis for responses to the survey. The results of the faculty survey suggest that telemedicine has substantial clinical benefits for pediatric orthopedic surgeons and our patients that extend beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Providers recognize the limits of conducting physical exams over telemedicine and should always use clinical judgment when evaluating patients, par-ticularly trauma patients who may require prompt referral for additional care. CONCLUSIONS:The ability to provide pediatric orthopedic care through telemedicine has allowed us to safely evaluate and treat pediatric patients with musculoskeletal problems in New York City and its environs despite the COVID-19 pandemic. The efficient evaluation of both new and exist-ing pediatric orthopedic patients via telehealth is viable. Physical examination is the most challenging aspect of the physician-patient encounter to replicate virtually. Targeted educational efforts for patients and their families before the visit about what to expect and how to prepare improves efficiency with virtual pediatric orthopedic visits. Efforts to limit disparities in access to telemedicine will be needed to allow all pediatric orthopedic patients to participate in telemedicine equitably.
PMID: 33207144
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 4730512