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"One Incision Does Not Fit All"

Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
PMID: 36729722
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5420332

Modern Approaches to Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction

Salibian, Ara A; Karp, Nolan S
The modern approach to implant-based breast reconstruction encompasses an evolution in surgical techniques, patient selection, implant technology, and use of support materials. Successful outcomes are defined by teamwork throughout the ablative and reconstructive processes as well as appropriate and evidence-based utilization of modern material technologies. Patient education, focus on patient-reported outcomes, and informed and shared decision-making are the key to all steps of these procedures.
PMID: 36813400
ISSN: 1558-0504
CID: 5433922

Quantifying Surgical Complications for Reduction Mammaplasty in Adolescents

Morrison, Kerry A; Vernon, Rebecca; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
BACKGROUND:Reduction mammaplasty is a safe, effective procedure to alleviate symptoms of adolescent macromastia. However, there remains limited data on surgical complications associated with reduction mammaplasty in adolescents, which may not be concordant with those cited for adults seeking reduction mammaplasty. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of all consecutively performed reduction mammaplasty cases for symptomatic macromastia in patients aged 20 years old and younger over a seven-year period from 2014 to 2021. RESULTS:One hundred sixty total breasts were analyzed in 80 patients. Mean age was 18.3±1.4 years with an age range from 15 to 20 years old. Mean BMI was 27.17±5.49. Mean reduction weight was 584.79±261.19 grams. A medial pedicle was used in 91%, and inferior pedicle in 9%. For skin incision, Wise pattern was used in 60%, and short-scar in 40%. There was a 16.3% rate of any surgical complication, which included wound healing by secondary intention treated with local wound care. There were no significant risk factors for a surgical complication in reduction mammaplasty, and no differences in surgical complications related to skin incision type, pedicle use, or breast reduction weight. Performance of a ROC curve for age at surgery and complication demonstrated that there was no age cut-off where the risk of surgical complication was appreciably increased or decreased. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Age was not identified as a risk factor for surgical complications in adolescent reduction mammaplasty. Overall, complication rates are very low and minor in nature for adolescent reduction mammaplasty with no significant risk factors identified.
PMID: 36730536
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5420392

Patient Decision Making for Management of Style 410 Anatomic Implants in Breast Reconstruction

Boyd, Carter J; Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:In July of 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recalled the Allergan Natrelle® 410 Highly Cohesive Anatomically Shaped Silicone-Filled Textured Breast Implants (Allergan, Santa Barbara, CA) because of a heightened risk of developing breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The objective of this study was to describe patient decision-making in management of preexisting 410 textured implants. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective chart review was conducted to determine all patients who received 410 anatomic implants from two surgeons. Patients who received these implants were contacted in July-September of 2019 regarding the FDA recall and requested to schedule a consultation to discuss explant/exchange versus surveillance. Outcomes analyzed included decision of surveillance versus explanation and subsequent reconstructive operations. RESULTS:89 patients had received 410 implants from 2013-2017. Of the 147 breasts that were reconstructed, 58.5% were oncologic mastectomies and 41.5% were prophylactic. The majority of patients (71.9%) cited BIA-ALCL as the predominant influencing factor in their decision for management. Others factors included cosmesis, implant concerns unrelated to BIA-ALCL, and other medical conditions. 20 (22.5%) patients underwent explantation of the Style 410 implants. The remaining 77.5% of patients have elected for monitored surveillance. There was a significant association between a history of breast cancer and explantation of the Style 410 implants (p=0.0335). CONCLUSIONS:The majority of patients with Style 410 textured implants elected to undergo surveillance for BIA-ALCL. When deciding to explant or exchange the Style 410 implants, plastic surgeons should work in conjunction with their patients to carefully outline management options.
PMID: 36730538
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5420402

US FDA Patient Decision Checklist for Breast Implants Results of a Survey to Members of The Aesthetic Society, April 2022

Karp, Nolan; McGuire, Patricia; Adams, William P; Jewell, Mark L
The US FDA in response to concerns that patients undergoing breast implant surgery were not adequately informed about the risks of receiving an implanted medical device mandated a patient decision checklist (PDC) in October 2021. Breast implant manufactures communicated with plastic surgeons in 2022 regarding the use of the PDC as a condition for the sale of breast implants. Plastic surgeons voiced concerns over the accuracy of content in the PDC and its confusing statements about risk of adverse events associated with breast surgery. In April 2022, the Aesthetic Society developed a survey that was sent to its members regarding their experiences with the PDC. This was a 5-question survey and one additional place for comments. The purpose for this survey was to develop data on the six-month experience of plastic surgeons using the PDC. A total of 206 Aesthetic Society members (9%) participated in the survey (1849 total active members in the United States). Patients deserve appropriate information prior to breast implant surgery to make an informed decision after reviewing the potential risks and benefits. The authors believe that there is still more work to be done on an ideal PDC will make it fair and balanced and that it scientifically describes risk incidence in a way that patients understand and can be updated.
PMID: 36073650
ISSN: 1527-330x
CID: 5337072

Revisiting Reduction Mammaplasty: Complications of Oncoplastic and Symptomatic Macromastia Reductions

Morrison, Kerry A; Frey, Jordan D; Karp, Nolan; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Oncoplastic breast reduction has been shown to be an effective and safe approach to breast conservation surgery in women with macromastia. However, there remains a paucity of data investigating the comparative outcomes. This study seeks to delineate the complication profiles for oncoplastic and symmetrizing breast reductions versus mammaplasty for benign macromastia. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of all consecutively performed reduction mammaplasty cases at a single institution by two plastic surgeons over a 2-year period. RESULTS:A total of 632 breasts were analyzed: 502 reduction mammaplasties, 85 symmetrizing reductions, and 45 oncoplastic reductions in 342 patients. Mean age was 43.9 ± 15.93 years, mean body mass index was 29.15 ± 5.66 kg/m2, and mean reduction weight was 610.03 ± 313.13 g. Regarding surgical technique, a medial pedicle was used in 86% of cases. There were similar postoperative complication outcomes for nipple necrosis, wound healing, scar revision, fat necrosis, seroma, hematoma, and overall complication rates for all procedures. However, the rate of postoperative revision among reduction mammaplasty (2%), oncoplastic reduction (6.7%), and symmetrizing reduction (5.9%) was significantly different (P = 0.027). In univariate analysis, diabetes (P = 0.011), smoking (P = 0.007), higher body mass index (P = 0.003), larger reduction weight (P = 0.011), longer nipple-to-inframammary fold measurement (P = 0.014), and longer sternal notch-to-nipple measurement (P = 0.039) were all significant risk factors for a surgical complication in reductions performed for any indication. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, diabetes (P = 0.047), smoking (P = 0.025), and higher body mass index (P = 0.002) were all retained as statistically significant risk factors. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The complication profiles for both oncoplastic breast reductions and breast reductions for symptomatic macromastia are similar and acceptably low. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, III.
PMID: 36696305
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5419602

Aesthetic Characteristics of the Ideal Female Breast

Bekisz, Jonathan M.; Boyd, Carter J.; Salibian, Ara A.; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S.
Background: The female breast is a subject of significant focus within plastic surgery. Little work to date has examined public perceptions of attractiveness with respect to breast anatomy and morphology. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of anatomic and aesthetic breast characteristics valued by the general population. Methods: A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting for aesthetic or reconstructive breast surgery between 2009 and 2019. A cohort of 25 patients were included in a nationwide survey designed to assess subjective impressions of overall "breast attractiveness." Survey responses were assessed, and the five patients with the highest mean scores were identified. An in-depth analysis of this subgroup was performed, evaluating anatomic metrics on both two-dimensional photographs and three-dimensional imaging. Statistical analysis examined correlations between objective breast characteristics and subjective perceptions of "attractiveness." Results: There were 1021 survey responses. Across the entire patient cohort, the mean age was 47.4 years and mean BMI was 24.9 kg/m2. On a five-point Likert scale, the mean "breast attractiveness" score for the highest-scoring subgroup patients (n = 5) was 3.1 ± 0.1. Within this group, all patients had minimal ptosis and a projected contour. Average breast size was moderate, with mean volume of 299.4 ± 115.8 cm3. Conclusions: This study reverse engineers the aesthetically appealing female breast, beginning with overall impressions of attractiveness and subsequently analyzing the influence of objective anatomic parameters on subjective perceptions. In surveying a large and diverse population, moderately sized, projected breasts with upper pole fullness were found to be associated with increased "attractiveness" scores.
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 5424932

Catch-22: ADM and FDA Pre-Market Approval: How Can We Construct Studies?

Boyd, Carter J; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
As a biologic product derived from human tissue, acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) did not require pre-market approval for their initial use as a soft tissue support product. Since their first utilization in breast surgery, ADMs have allowed for numerous advances in breast reconstruction. ADMs quickly gained popularity in breast surgery and are frequently utilized in various applications. During an investigation into potential factors leading to breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made an official statement that ADMs were not approved for use in breast reconstruction and that using ADMs in breast surgery was considered off-label. This special topic article details the history of ADMs in breast surgery and describes the ongoing evolution of the relationship between the FDA and ADMs.
PMID: 36161788
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5334032

Picking the Right Plane: A Comparison of Total Submuscular, Dual-Plane, and Prepectoral Implant-based Breast Reconstruction

Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Frey, Jordan D; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
BACKGROUND:Implant-based breast reconstruction has evolved, with a recent resurgence of prepectoral techniques. Comparative reconstructive outcomes and complications have not been fully elucidated among the total submuscular (TSM), dual-plane (DP), and prepectoral planes of implant placement. METHODS:All immediate implant-based breast reconstructions from March 2017 through August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were divided into TSM, DP, and prepectoral cohorts. Demographics, operative techniques, and reconstructive outcomes and complications were compared among groups. RESULTS:826 cases (510 patients) were identified and divided into TSM (n=392), DP (n=358), and prepectoral (n=76) cohorts. Average follow-up for all patients was 27 months. The prepectoral cohort had a higher average BMI and rate of prior reduction/mastopexy. Overall complications were lowest in the TSM group, though this difference was not statistically significant. Major infection occurred more frequently in the DP group compared to the TSM cohort. The prepectoral cohort had a significantly increased incidence of wound dehiscence than the TSM group, while both the dual-plane and prepectoral groups had higher rates of seroma formation and explantation compared to TSM. CONCLUSIONS:Overall reconstructive complication rates were comparable among the cohorts. Compared to those undergoing TSM reconstruction, the DP cohort was more likely to develop a major infection or require explantation, while the prepectoral group had significantly higher rates of isolated dehiscence, seroma formation, and explantation. This suggest that the absence of overlying vascularized muscle may lead to an inherent inability to tolerate wound healing complications, though further research is needed to clarify these observations.
PMID: 35862095
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5279302

Long-Term Cancer Recurrence Rates Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: A 10-year Follow-up Study

Boyd, Carter J; Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Shapiro, Richard L; Schnabel, Freya R; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Despite the increased utilization of nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM), there is limited data examining long-term cancer recurrence rates in these patients. The objective of this study was to analyze breast cancer recurrence in patients who received therapeutic NSM with a median of 10 years of follow-up. METHODS:All patients undergoing NSM at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed temporally to obtain a median of 10-years of follow up. Patient demographic factors, mastectomy specimen pathology, and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. RESULTS:126 therapeutic NSM were performed on 120 patients. The most frequently observed tumor histology included invasive ductal carcinoma (48.4%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (38.1%). Mean tumor size was 1.62 cm. Multifocal or multicentric disease and lymphovascular invasion were present in 31.0% and 10.3% of NSM specimens, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 84.9% of NSM and 17.8% were positive. The rate of positive frozen subareolar biopsy was 7.3% (n=82) and permanent subareolar pathology was 9.5% (n=126). The most frequently observed pathologic tumor stages was stage I (44.6%) and stage 0 (33.9%). Incidence of recurrent disease was 3.17% per mastectomy and 3.33% per patient. Upon univariate analysis, no demographic, operative, or tumor-specific variables were independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:Overall recurrence rates are low in patients undergoing NSM at a median follow-up of 10-years. Close surveillance should remain a goal for patients and their providers to promptly identify potential recurrence.
PMID: 35943969
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5286852