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Prostate cancer treatment and the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy to cognitive function

Reiss, A B; Saeedullah, U; Grossfeld, D J; Glass, A D; Pinkhasov, A; Katz, A E
Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men. For advanced, high risk prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the preferred treatment and can induce remission, but resistance to ADT brings biochemical recurrence and progression of cancer. ADT brings adverse effects such as erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and diminished physical strength. It is estimated that between 25 and 50% of men on ADT manifest some form of cognitive dysfunction that may be self-reported or reported by a family member. There is concern that impaired cognitive function with ADT is due to loss of testosterone support. Testosterone and its metabolites are known to possess neuroprotective properties. While a direct causal relationship between ADT and cognitive decline in prostate cancer patients has not been established, this review describes the controversy surrounding the possible connection between ADT and neurocognitive deterioration. The cellular and molecular mechanisms believed to underlie the protection of neuronal integrity by androgens are discussed. Results from animal models and human clinical studies are presented. Finally, we call attention to lifestyle modifications that may minimize cognitive issues in prostate cancer patients.
PMID: 34743290
ISSN: 1699-3055
CID: 5217912

Salvage Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy After Definitive Cryoablation

Lischalk, Jonathan W; Katz, Aaron E; Blacksburg, Seth R; Mendez, Christopher; Sanchez, Astrid; Repka, Michael C; Witten, Matthew; Taneja, Samir; Lepor, Herbert; Haas, Jonathan A
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Whole gland cryoablation is a guideline-approved definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer, and is being explored for partial gland ablation. However, there is limited data regarding management of cryoablation failures. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a well-established method of primary treatment for prostate cancer. Here we review salvage SBRT after cryoablation failures. Methods and Materials/UNASSIGNED:A large database of patients treated with definitive SBRT was interrogated to identify those who underwent primary cryoablation. All patients were determined to have progressive disease based on a rising prostate specific antigen and/or postcryoablation biopsy. All patients were treated with SBRT over 5 treatment fractions using a robotic radiosurgical platform. Baseline cryoablation characteristics and pre- and posttreatment Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires were analyzed. Acute and late toxicity was evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5.0. Cancer outcomes after salvage SBRT were stratified by disease and treatment characteristics. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 51 patients were identified who underwent cryoablation followed by salvage SBRT. The majority (47%) were found to have intermediate-risk disease at the time of SBRT salvage and most commonly were treated with 3500 cGy in 5 fractions to the prostate and seminal vesicles. Only 1 grade 3+ toxicity was identified. Patient-reported quality of life metrics after SBRT salvage followed prior patterns observed in the de novo SBRT setting. With a median follow-up of 40 months, 76% of the cohort demonstrated disease control. Median time to prostate cancer recurrence was 57.5 months, and recurrence was predominantly seen in patients with underlying high-risk disease. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This is the largest cohort of patients treated with any radiation therapy salvage after cryoablation and the first institution to report SBRT as a modality of salvage. Salvage SBRT after cryoablation results in low rates of high-grade toxicity, acceptable changes in patient-reported quality of life, and durable rates of long-term oncologic control.
PMCID:9133399
PMID: 35647408
ISSN: 2452-1094
CID: 5232872

Safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer without treatment planning MRI

Amarell, Katherine; Jaysing, Anna; Mendez, Christopher; Haas, Jonathan A; Blacksburg, Seth R; Katz, Aaron E; Sanchez, Astrid; Tong, Angela; Carpenter, Todd; Witten, Matthew; Collins, Sean P; Lischalk, Jonathan W
BACKGROUND:The use of treatment planning prostate MRI for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is largely a standard, yet not all patients can receive MRI for a variety of clinical reasons. Thus, we aim to investigate the safety of patients who received CT alone based SBRT planning for the definitive treatment of localized prostate cancer. METHODS:Our study analyzed 3410 patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated with SBRT at a single academic institution between 2006 and 2020. Acute and late toxicity was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires evaluated QOL and PSA nadir was evaluated to detect biochemical failures. RESULTS:A total of 162 patients (4.75%) received CT alone for treatment planning. The CT alone group was older relative to the MRI group (69.9 vs 67.2, p < 0.001) and had higher risk and grade disease (p < 0.001). Additionally, the CT group exhibited a trend in larger CTVs (82.56 cc vs 76.90 cc; p = 0.055), lower total radiation doses (p = 0.048), and more frequent pelvic nodal radiation versus the MRI group (p < 0.001). There were only two reported cases of Grade 3 + toxicity within the CT alone group. Quality of life data within the CT alone group revealed declines in urinary and bowel scores at one month with return to baseline at subsequent follow up. Early biochemical failure data at median time of 2.3 years revealed five failures by Phoenix definition. CONCLUSIONS:While clinical differences existed between the MRI and CT alone group, we observed tolerable toxicity profiles in the CT alone cohort, which was further supported by EPIC questionnaire data. The overall clinical outcomes appear comparable in patients unable to receive MRI for their SBRT treatment plan with early clinical follow up.
PMCID:8977039
PMID: 35366926
ISSN: 1748-717x
CID: 5201512

Utilization of focal therapy for patients discontinuing active surveillance of prostate cancer: Recommendations of an international Delphi consensus

Tan, Wei Phin; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Klotz, Laurence; Carroll, Peter R; Emberton, Mark; Feller, John F; George, Arvin K; Gill, Inderbir S; Gupta, Rajan T; Katz, Aaron E; Lebastchi, Amir H; Marks, Leonard S; Marra, Giancarlo; Pinto, Peter A; Song, Daniel Y; Sidana, Abhinav; Ward, John F; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Rosette, Jean de la; Polascik, Thomas J
BACKGROUND:With the advancement of imaging technology, focal therapy (FT) has been gaining acceptance for the treatment of select patients with localized prostate cancer (CaP). We aim to provide details of a formal physician consensus on the utilization of FT for patients with CaP who are discontinuing active surveillance (AS). METHODS:A 3-stage Delphi consensus on CaP and FT was conducted. Consensus was defined as agreement by ≥80% of physicians. An in-person meeting was attended by 17 panelists to formulate the consensus statement. RESULTS:Fifty-six respondents participated in this interdisciplinary consensus study (82% urologist, 16% radiologist, 2% radiation oncology). The participants confirmed that there is a role for FT in men discontinuing AS (48% strongly agree, 39% agree). The benefit of FT over radical therapy for men coming off AS is: less invasive (91%), has a greater likelihood to preserve erectile function (91%), has a greater likelihood to preserve urinary continence (91%), has fewer side effects (86%), and has early recovery post-treatment (80%). Patients will need to undergo mpMRI of the prostate and/or a saturation biopsy to determine if they are potential candidates for FT. Our limitations include respondent's biases and that the participants of this consensus may not represent the larger medical community. CONCLUSIONS:FT can be offered to men coming off AS between the age of 60 to 80 with grade group 2 localized cancer. This consensus from a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, international expert panel provides a contemporary insight utilizing FT for CaP in select patients who are discontinuing AS.
PMCID:8654321
PMID: 33676851
ISSN: 1873-2496
CID: 5149752

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in men with underlying inflammatory bowel disease

Lischalk, Jonathan W; Blacksburg, Seth; Mendez, Christopher; Repka, Michael; Sanchez, Astrid; Carpenter, Todd; Witten, Matthew; Garbus, Jules E; Evans, Andrew; Collins, Sean P; Katz, Aaron; Haas, Jonathan
BACKGROUND:Historically, IBD has been thought to increase the underlying risk of radiation related toxicity in the treatment of prostate cancer. In the modern era, contemporary radiation planning and delivery may mitigate radiation-related toxicity in this theoretically high-risk cohort. This is the first manuscript to report clinical outcomes for men diagnosed with prostate cancer and underlying IBD curatively treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS:A large institutional database of patients (n = 4245) treated with SBRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate was interrogated to identify patients who were diagnosed with underlying IBD prior to treatment. All patients were treated with SBRT over five treatment fractions using a robotic radiosurgical platform and fiducial tracking. Baseline IBD characteristics including IBD subtype, pre-SBRT IBD medications, and EPIC bowel questionnaires were reviewed for the IBD cohort. Acute and late toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE version 5.0. RESULTS:A total of 31 patients were identified who had underlying IBD prior to SBRT for the curative treatment of prostate cancer. The majority (n = 18) were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and were being treated with local steroid suppositories for IBD. No biochemical relapses were observed in the IBD cohort with early follow up. High-grade acute and late toxicities were rare (n = 1, grade 3 proctitis) with a median time to any GI toxicity of 22 months. Hemorrhoidal flare was the most common low-grade toxicity observed (n = 3). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:To date, this is one of the largest groups of patients with IBD treated safely and effectively with radiation for prostate cancer and the only review of patients treated with SBRT. Caution is warranted when delivering therapeutic radiation to patients with IBD, however modern radiation techniques appear to have mitigated the risk of GI side effects.
PMCID:8267228
PMID: 34243797
ISSN: 1748-717x
CID: 4965222

The iTind Temporarily Implanted Nitinol Device for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial

Chughtai, Bilal; Elterman, Dean; Shore, Neal; Gittleman, Marc; Motola, Jay; Pike, Sheldon; Hermann, Craig; Terrens, William; Kohan, Alfred; Gonzalez, Ricardo R; Katz, Aaron; Schiff, Jeffery; Goldfischer, Evan; Grunberger, Ivan; Tu, Le Mai; Alshak, Mark N; Kaminetzky, Jed
OBJECTIVE:To report the results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial with a temporarily implanted nitinol device (iTind; Medi-Tate Ltd, Hadera, Israel) compared to sham for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Men 50 years or older were randomized 2:1 between iTind and sham procedure arms. A self-expanding, temporary nitinol device was placed for 5-7 days and an 18F Foley catheter was inserted and removed for the iTind and sham group, respectively. Patients were assessed at baseline, 1.5, 3, and 12 months postoperatively using the IPSS, peak urinary flow rate, residual urine, quality of life, and the International Index of Erectile Function. Unblinding occurred at 3 months. RESULTS:A total of 175 men (mean age 61.1 ± 6.5) participated (118 iTind vs 57 sham). A total of 78.6% of patients in the iTind arm showed a reduction of ≥3 points in IPSS, vs 60% of patients in the control arm at 3 months. At 12 months, the iTind group reported a 9.25 decrease in IPSS (P< .0001), a 3.52ml/s increase in peak urinary flow rate (P < .0001) and a 1.9-point reduction in quality of life (P < .0001). Adverse events were typically mild and transient, most Clavien-Dindo grade I or II, in 38.1% of patients in the iTind arm and 17.5% in the control arm. No de novo ejaculatory or erectile dysfunction occurred. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with the second-generation iTind provided rapid and sustained improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms for the study period while preserving sexual function.
PMID: 33373708
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 4770992

Pathologic measures of quality compare favorably in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy to open cystectomy cohorts: a National Cancer Database analysis

Miguel, Carla M; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Fazzari, Melissa J; Kongnyuy, Michael; Smaldone, Marc C; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Katz, Aaron E; Corcoran, Anthony T
This study aims to assess the impact of facility characteristics on measures of surgical quality (positive surgical margin rates and lymph-node yield) in patients undergoing robot-assisted (RARC) versus open (ORC) radical cystectomy using the National Cancer Database. Patients who received RC between the years of 2010-2013 were stratified according to surgery type (ORC vs. RARC), and corresponding patient and facility-level variables (facility type and volume) were assessed. Logistic regression models for procedure type, positive surgical margins (PSMs), and LN dissection (LND) rates were estimated. Radical cystectomies (ORC = 13,236, RARC = 3687) were performed more often in academic centers (58.3%) compared to community centers (31.6%). As facility volume increased, centers performed more LNDs during ORCs (p = 0.03) and the number of nodes retrieved increased in both ORC and RARC (ORC p < 0.001; RARC p < 0.0001). Increased facility volume also resulted in significantly fewer PSMs within the RARC cohort (p = 0.01). Comparison of ORC and RARC within each facility type cohort identified improved pathological metrics for RARC with fewer PSMs (p = 0.001) as well as increased LNDs (p < 0.0001) and median number of LNs retrieved (p < 0.0001), which suggests that RARC may facilitate comparative outcomes in community centers and academic centers. Overall, higher facility volume and robot-assisted surgery resulted in more favorable pathologic metrics compared to lower facility volume and ORC.
PMID: 31583520
ISSN: 1863-2491
CID: 4116922

Evaluation of a novel cystoscopic compatible cryocatheter for the treatment of bladder cancer

Baust, John M.; Robilotto, Anthony; Santucci, Kimberly L.; Snyder, Kristi K.; van Buskirk, Robert G.; Katz, Aaron; Corcoran, Anthony; Baust, John G.
BACKGROUND: As the acceptance of cryoablative therapies for the treatment of non-metastatic cancers continues to grow, avenues for novel cryosurgical technologies and approaches have opened. Within the field of genitourinary tumors, cryosurgical treatments of bladder cancers remain largely investigational. Current modalities employ percutaneous needles or transurethral cryoballoons or sprays, and while results have been promising, each technology is limited to specific types and stages of cancers. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated a new, self-contained transurethral cryocatheter, FrostBite-BC, for its potential to treat bladder cancer. METHODS: Thermal characteristics and ablative capacity were assessed using calorimetry, isothermal analyses, in vitro 3-dimensional tissue engineered models (TEMs), and a pilot in vivo porcine study. RESULTS: Isotherm assessment revealed surface temperatures below -20◦ C within 9 sec. In vitro TEMs studies demonstrated attainment of ≤-20◦ C at 6.1 mm and 8.2 mm in diameter following single and double 2 min freezes, respectively. Fluorescent imaging 24 hr post-thaw revealed uniform, ablative volumes of 326.2 mm3 and 397.9 mm3 following a single or double 2 min freeze. In vivo results demonstrated the consistent generation of ablative areas. Lesion depth was found to correlate with freeze time wherein 15 sec freezes resulted in ablation confined to the sub-mucosa and ≥30 sec full thickness ablation of the bladder wall. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate the potential of the FrostBite-BC cryocatheter as a treatment option for bladder cancer. Although preliminary, the outcomes of these studies were encouraging, and support the continued investigation into the potential of the FrostBite-BC cryocatheter as a next generation, minimally invasive cryoablative technology.
SCOPUS:85096342859
ISSN: 2352-3727
CID: 4683422

Prostate Fiducial Marker Placement in Patients on Anticoagulation: Feasibility Prior to Prostate SBRT

Iocolano, Michelle; Blacksburg, Seth; Carpenter, Todd; Repka, Michael; Carbone, Susan; Demircioglu, Gizem; Miccio, Maryann; Katz, Aaron; Haas, Jonathan
Background and Purpose: Fiducial marker placement is required in patients undergoing robotic-based Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) or image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer. Many patients take antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication due to other medical comorbidities. They are often required to temporarily discontinue these medications prior to invasive medical procedures as they are prone to bleed. Some patients are unable to discontinue therapy due to an elevated risk of thromboembolic events. The purpose of this study is to report this institution's experience placing fiducial markers in prostate cancer patients who are on chronic antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication. Materials and Methods: From August 2015-March 2019 57 patients on chronic antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy who were not cleared to stop these medications underwent transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) fiducial marker placement for SBRT/IGRT. All patients were monitored by a registered nurse during the procedure for prolonged bleeding that required staff to hold pressure to the area with a 4 × 4 gauze until it resolved. All patients were also called the following day to assess for ongoing bleeding events. Treatment planning CT scan confirmed the ideal geometry of the marker placement. Results: All 57 patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication who underwent fiducial marker placement were discharged home the same day of the procedure. Four patients experienced persistent bleeding that required a nurse to hold prolonged pressure to the area. No patient experienced significant bleeding the following day or any untoward cardiovascular event. Conclusions: This series suggests the use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication is not an absolute contraindication to fiducial marker placement in patients undergoing SBRT or IGRT for prostate cancer. These patients should be closely monitored after the procedure for bleeding complications. Practitioners may consider the patient's medical comorbidities, risk factors for thromboembolism, and overall functional status as there is no standardized protocol for discontinuing anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy for fiducial marker placement.
PMCID:7056879
PMID: 32175274
ISSN: 2234-943x
CID: 4371092

The Prognostic Impact of Delayed Time From Biopsy in Men with Low Risk Prostate Cancer Treated with Definitive SBRT [Meeting Abstract]

Blacksburg, S. R.; Carpenter, T. J.; Demircioglu, G.; Witten, M. R.; Mendez, C.; Dodin, F.; Katz, A. E.; Haas, J. A.
ISI:000582521503187
ISSN: 0360-3016
CID: 4686392