Proportion of Malignancy and Evaluation of Sonographic Features of Thyroid Nodules Classified As Highly Suspicious Using ACR TI-RADS Criteria
Hussain, Najia; Goldstein, Michael B; Zakher, Mariam; Katz, Douglas S; Brandler, Tamar C; Islam, Shahidul; Rothberger, Gary D
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The reported malignancy rate of highly suspicious thyroid nodules based on the ACR TI-RADS criteria (TI-RADS category 5 [TR5]) varies widely. The objective of our study was to determine the rate of malignancy of TR5 nodules at our institution. We also aimed to determine the predictive values of individual sonographic features, as well as the correlation of total points assigned to a nodule and rate of malignancy. METHODS:Our single-institution retrospective study evaluated 450 TR5 nodules that had cytology results available, in 399 patients over a 1-year period. Sonographic features and total TI-RADS points were determined by the interpreting radiologist. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models to find factors associated with increased odds of malignancy, and computing sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of various individual sonographic features. RESULTS:Of the 450 nodules, 95 (21.1%, 95% exact confidence interval 17.4-25.2%) were malignant. Each additional TI-RADS point increased the odds of malignancy (adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.60, PÂ <â€‰.001). "Very hypoechoic" was the sonographic feature with the highest specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy (95.5 and 44.8%, respectively), while "punctate echogenic foci" had the lowest positive predictive value (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS:The rate of malignancy of TR5 nodules at our institution was 21.1%, which is lower than other malignancy rates reported in the literature. The total number of points assigned on the basis of the TI-RADS criteria was positively associated with malignancy, which indicates that TR5 should be viewed as a spectrum of risk.
Imaging evaluation of lymphoma in pregnancy with review of clinical assessment and treatment options
Dell'Aquila, Kevin; Hodges, Hannah; Moshiri, Mariam; Katz, Douglas S; Elojeimy, Saeed; Revzin, Margarita V; Tembelis, Miltiadis; Revels, Jonathan W
Lymphoma-related malignancies can be categorized as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) based on histologic characteristics. Although quite rare during pregnancy, HL and NHL are the fourth and fifth most common malignancies during the pregnancy period, respectively. Given the rarity of lymphoma among pregnant patients, radiologists are usually unfamiliar with the modifications required for staging and treatment of this population, even those who work at centers with busy obstetrical services. Therefore, this manuscript serves to not only review the abdominopelvic imaging features of lymphoma in pregnancy, but it also discusses topics including birthing parent and fetal lymphoma-related prognosis, both antenatal and postpartum, current concepts in the management of pregnancy-related lymphoma, as well as the current considerations regarding birthing parent onco-fertility.
A 33-Year-Old Man With Acute Hemoptysis [Case Report]
Meier, Erin; Katz, Douglas S; Spiegler, Peter
A 33-year-old man with a medical history of childhood exercise-induced asthma presented to the ED with 2 days of hemoptysis. He described the hemoptysis as bright red blood with clots, approximately 100 cm3 in total. He denied prior hemoptysis, pulmonary infections, or exposure to TB. Years ago he had an episode of gross hematuria, but a urologic workup was unrevealing.
Upper Gastrointestinal Fluoroscopic Examination: A Traditional Art Enduring into the 21st Century
Revels, Jonathan W; Moran, Shamus K; O'Malley, Ryan; Mansoori, Bahar; Revzin, Margarita; Katz, Douglas S; Moshiri, Mariam; DiSantis, David J
Sequelae of Eating Disorders at Imaging
Solomon, Nadia; Sailer, Anne; Dixe de Oliveira Santo, Irene; Pillai, Aishwarya; Heng, Lauren Xuan Xin; Jha, Priyanka; Katz, Douglas S; Zulfiqar, Maria; Sugi, Mark; Revzin, Margarita V
Although eating disorders are common, they tend to be underdiagnosed and undertreated because social stigma tends to make patients less likely to seek medical attention and less compliant with medical treatment. Diagnosis is crucial because these disorders can affect any organ system and are associated with the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Because of this, imaging findings, when recognized, can be vital to the diagnosis and management of eating disorders and their related complications. The authors familiarize the radiologist with the pathophysiology and sequelae of eating disorders and provide an overview of the related imaging findings. Some imaging findings associated with eating disorders are nonspecific, and others are subtle. The presence of these findings should alert the radiologist to correlate them with the patient's medical history and laboratory results and the clinical team's findings at the physical examination. The combination of these findings may suggest a diagnosis that might otherwise be missed. Topics addressed include (a) the pathophysiology of eating disorders, (b) the clinical presentation of patients with eating disorders and their medical complications and sequelae, (c) the imaging features associated with common and uncommon sequelae of eating disorders, (d) an overview of management and treatment of eating disorders, and (e) conditions that can mimic eating disorders (eg, substance abuse, medically induced eating disorders, and malnourishment in patients with cancer). Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Abdominal Pain in the Pregnant Patient
Stanley, Abigail D; Tembelis, Miltiadis; Patlas, Michael N; Moshiri, Mariam; Revzin, Margarita V; Katz, Douglas S
Evaluation of a pregnant patient presenting with acute abdominal pain can be challenging to accurately diagnose for a variety of reasons, and particularly late in pregnancy. Noncontrast MR remains a safe and accurate diagnostic imaging modality for the pregnant patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, following often an initially inconclusive ultrasound examination, and can be used in most settings to avoid the ionizing radiation exposure of a computed tomography scan. Pathologic processes discussed in this article include some of the more common gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and gynecologic causes of abdominal pain occurring in pregnancy, as well as traumatic injuries.
Diagnostic performance of triple-contrast versus single-contrast multi-detector computed tomography for the evaluation of penetrating bowel injury
Paes, Fabio M; Durso, Anthony M; Pinto, Denver S; Covello, Brian; Katz, Douglas S; Munera, Felipe
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Selecting groups of low-risk penetrating trauma patients to forego laparotomy can be challenging. The presence of bowel injury may prevent non-operative management. Optimal CT technique to detect bowel injury related to penetrating injury is controversial. Our goal is to compare the diagnostic performance of triple-contrast (oral, rectal, and IV) against IV contrast-only CT, for the detection of bowel injury from penetrating abdominopelvic trauma, using surgical diagnosis as the reference standard. METHODS:Nine hundred ninety-seven patients who underwent CT for penetrating torso trauma at a single institution between 2009 and 2016 in our HIPPA-compliant and institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. A total of 143 patients, including 15 females and 123 males underwent a pre-operative CT, followed by exploratory laparotomy. Of these, 56 patients received triple-contrast CT. CT examinations were independently reviewed by two radiologists, blinded to surgical outcome and clinical presentation. Results were stratified by contrast type and injury mechanism and were compared based upon diagnostic performance indicators of sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value. Area under the receiving operating characteristics curves were analyzed for determination of diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS:Bowel injury was present in 45 out of 143 patients (10 on triple-contrast group and 35 on IV contrast-only group). Specificity and accuracy were higher with triple-contrast CT (98% specific, 97-99% accurate) compared to IV contrast-only CT (66% specific, 78-79% accurate). Sensitivity was highest with IV contrast-only CT (91% sensitive) compared with triple-contrast CT (75% sensitive), although this difference was not statistically significant. Triple-contrast technique increased diagnostic accuracy for both radiologists regardless of mechanism of injury. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In our retrospective single-institution cohort study, triple-contrast MDCT had greater accuracy, specificity, and positive predictive values when compared to IV contrast-only CT in evaluating for bowel injury from penetrating wounds.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Imaging Spectrum in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Marie, Eman; Navallas, María; Katz, Douglas S; Farajirad, Elnaz; Punnett, Angela; Davda, Sunit; Shammas, Amer; Oudjhane, Kamaldine; Vali, Reza
In children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is characterized by various age-related dissimilarities in tumor aggressiveness, prevailing pathologic subtypes, and imaging features, as well as potentially different treatment outcomes. Understanding the imaging spectrum of NHL in CAYA with particular attention to children and adolescents is critical for radiologists to support the clinical decision making by the treating physicians and other health care practitioners. The authors discuss the currently performed imaging modalities including radiography, US, CT, MRI, and PET in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of the treatment response. Familiarity with diagnostic imaging challenges during image acquisition, processing, and interpretation is required when managing patients with NHL. The authors describe potentially problematic and life-threatening scenarios that require prompt management. Moreover, the authors address the unprecedented urge to understand the imaging patterns of possible treatment-related complications of the therapeutic agents used in NHL clinical trials and in practice. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
Manifestations of Sickle Cell Disorder at Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging
Solomon, Nadia; Segaran, Nicole; Badawy, Mohamed; Elsayes, Khaled M; Pellerito, John S; Katz, Douglas S; Moshiri, Mariam; Revzin, Margarita V
Sickle cell disorder (SCD) refers to a spectrum of hematologic disorders that cause a characteristic clinical syndrome affecting the entire body. It is the most prevalent monogenetic hemoglobinopathy worldwide, with a wide range of focal and systemic expressions. Hemoglobin gene mutation leads to the formation of abnormal sickle-shaped red blood cells, which cause vascular occlusion and result in tissue and organ ischemia and infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute illness lead to progressive multisystem organ damage and dysfunction. Vaso-occlusion, hemolysis, and infection as a result of functional asplenia are at the core of the disease manifestations. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of SCD-related complications in the abdomen and pelvis. A thorough understanding of the key imaging findings of SCD complications involving hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems is crucial to timely recognition and accurate diagnosis. The authors aim to familiarize the radiologist with the SCD spectrum, focusing on the detection and evaluation of manifestations that may appear at imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. The topics the authors address include (a) the pathophysiology of the disease, (b) the placement of SCD among hemoglobinopathies, (c) the clinical presentation of SCD, (d) the role of imaging in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with SCD who present with abdominal and pelvic manifestations in addition to extraperitoneal manifestations detectable at abdominal or pelvic imaging, (e) imaging features associated with common and uncommon sequelae of SCD in abdominal and pelvic imaging studies, and (f) a brief overview of management and treatment of patients with SCD. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
The Magnet Is Sometimes "Off"-Practical Strategies for Optimizing Challenging Musculoskeletal MR Imaging
Hopp, Alix C; Fahrenholtz, Samuel J; Bashford, Jesse V; Long, Jeremiah R; Panda, Anshuman; Katz, Douglas S; Flug, Jonathan A
To describe practical solutions to the unique technical challenges of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging, including off-isocenter imaging, artifacts from motion and metal prostheses, small field-of-view imaging, and non-conventional scan angles and slice positioning. Unique challenges of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging require a collaborative approach involving radiologists, physicists, and technologists utilizing optimized magnetic resonance protocols, specialized coils, and unique patient positioning, in order to reliably diagnose critical musculoskeletal MR image findings.