Iatrogenic haemoperitoneum requiring transfusion after ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: case report
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion for hydrocephalus via ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. Unfortunately, VP shunting also carries a high complication rate. While long-term complications of VP shunting are generally well-described, the literature on more acute, iatrogenic injury during shunt placement is essentially limited to easily identifiable intracranial bleeds. Herein is presented the first reported case of iatrogenic abdominal wall vessel injury as a consequence of blind distal VP shunt catheter placement causing a critical haemoperitoneum that necessitated multiple transfusions. Presentation and recognition of this bleed was delayed as it occurred over a number of days. Injury to the inferior epigastric artery, or potentially a distal branch of the superficial epigastric artery, is suspected to have occurred during either blind subcutaneous tunnelling of the shunt catheter passage or during penetration of the peritoneum. Haemoperitoneum as a potential complication of procedures involving manipulation or penetration of the abdominal wall (i.e. paracentesis) is well-described in the medical and general surgical literature, and ultrasound-guidance has been widely adopted to mitigate bleeding in these cases. Familiarity with intra-abdominal haemorrhage as a potential complication of VP shunting and an understanding of its presentation is critical for timely identification of this phenomenon. Furthermore, the use of real-time ultrasound-guidance for tunnelling and distal shunt catheter placement may decrease the incidence of intrabdominal complications after shunt placement more generally and should be considered an area of future study.
Simulation-Based Up-Training in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
STATEMENT/UNASSIGNED:The dramatic outbreak of COVID-19 placed unprecedented strain on the critical care workforce of New York City. The enhanced precautions required to safely care for COVID-19 patients impacted the performance of even routine critical care procedures. Meanwhile, staff were stretched to care for exponentially rising case volume as COVID intensive care units (ICUs) expanded. Simulation was used to bridge these gaps-first to familiarize personnel within the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care with revised COVID-19 care procedures, then to orient noncritical care clinicians volunteering from other specialties for COVID ICU deployment to general critical care and COVID-19 care principles. Using mannequin-based simulation scenarios followed by comprehensive debriefing sessions, simulation participants received high-intensity, high-fidelity training in respiratory failure, circulatory failure, bedside ultrasound, bedside ICU procedures, and elements of COVID-19-specific care. More than 200 physicians and advanced practice practitioners completed simulation training in preparation for deployment, supplementing and enhancing the ICU workforce at a decisive time during the outbreak.
Simulation-based uptraining improves provider comfort in the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The COVID-19 surge required the deployment of large numbers of non-intensive care providers to assist in the management of the critically ill. Institutions took a variety of approaches to "uptraining" such providers though studies describing methods and effectiveness are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:One hundred and seventy-five providers underwent a 3Â h simulation-based session focused on management of shock, mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and critical care ultrasound. All participants were sent surveys to assess their comfort with various aspects of critical care following return to their usual work environments. RESULTS:One hundred and eight providers of 175 (62%) completed the survey. Overall, 104/108 responders (96%) felt training either significantly or somewhat improved their knowledge in the management of ICU patients. Responders felt most comfortable in the management of hypoxemia in intubated patients and the management of ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (93% strongly agree or agree, and 86% strongly agree or agree, respectively). Fewer responders felt more comfortable using focused echocardiography (70% strongly agree or agree) and lung ultrasonography in following progression of COVID-19 (76% strongly agree or agree). CONCLUSIONS:Simulation-based training improved provider comfort in the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19.
MANAGING OVERNIGHT EVENTS IN THE ICU: JUST-IN-TIME SIMULATION TRAINING FOR RESIDENTS ON CALL [Meeting Abstract]
Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Aid Booklet for Use in Rapid Response Scenarios
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Rapid response teams (RRTs) have become ubiquitous among hospitals in North America, despite lack of robust evidence supporting their effectiveness. Many RRTs do not yet use cognitive aids during these high-stakes, low-frequency scenarios, and there are no standardized cognitive aids that are widely available for RRTs on medicine patients. We sought to design an emergency manual to improve resident performance in common RRT calls. METHODS:Residents from the New York University School of Medicine Internal Medicine Residency Program were asked to volunteer for the study. The intervention group was provided with a 2-minute scripted informational session on cognitive aids as well as access to a cognitive aid booklet, which they were allowed to use during the simulation. RESULTS:Resident performance was recorded and scored by a physician who was blinded to the purpose of the study using a predefined scoring card. Residents in the intervention group performed significantly better in the simulated RRT, by overall score (mean score = 7.33/10 and 6.26/10, respectively, P = 0.02), and by performance on the two critical interventions, giving the correct dose of naloxone (89% and 39%, respectively, P < 0.001) and checking the patient's blood glucose level (93% and 52%, respectively, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In a simulated scenario of opiate overdose, internal medicine residents who used a cognitive aid performed better on critical tasks than those residents who did not have a cognitive aid. The use of an appropriately designed cognitive aid with sufficient education could improve performance in critical scenarios.
New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 
Potential consequences of high-dose infusion of ketamine for refractory status epilepticus: case reports and systematic literature review
Our goal was to provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of ketamine in refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and to describe the potential consequences of long-term ketamine infusion. Ketamine, an N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, blocks excitatory pathways contributing to ongoing seizure. While ketamine use is standard in anaesthetic induction, no definitive protocol exists for its use in RSE, and little is known about its adverse effects in long-term, high-dose administration. We present two cases of RSE that responded rapidly to ketamine infusion, both with fatal outcomes secondary to metabolic acidosis and cardiovascular collapse. We performed a systematic review of the application and consequences of ketamine use in RSE. PubMed, Ovid, MEDLINE and PMC were searched for articles describing ketamine treatment for RSE according to a predetermined search strategy and inclusion criteria. The systematic review revealed wide discrepancies in ketamine dosing (infusion maintenance dose range 0.0075-10.5 mg/kg/hour), but good outcomes in medically managed RSE (75% of studies reported moderate or complete seizure control in adults, 62.5% in paediatrics). Additionally, literature review elucidated a potentially causal relationship between prolonged ketamine infusion and both cardiovascular and metabolic dysregulation. Ketamine is effective in RSE by antagonising excitotoxic NMDA receptors. However, there is high variability in ketamine dosing and scarce data on its safety in long-term infusion. Metabolic acidosis and haemodynamic instability associated with the use of long-term, high-dose ketamine infusions must be of concern to clinicians administering ketamine to critically ill patients.
Assessing and Improving Resident Stress During Rapid Response Scenarios [Meeting Abstract]
Development and Evaluation of a Cognitive Aid Booklet for Use in Rapid Response Scenarios [Meeting Abstract]
The Utility of High-Fidelity Simulation for Training Critical Care Fellows in the Management of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies: A Randomized Controlled Trial
OBJECTIVE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation volume has increased, proficiency in the technology requires extensive training. We compared traditional water-drill-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training with the hypothesis that simulation-based training is superior. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Pulmonary/critical care fellows. INTERVENTIONS: Participants had a preintervention simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergency (Sim1-recirculation) then randomized into simulation and traditional groups. Each group participated in three teaching scenarios, via high-fidelity simulation or via water-drills. After 6 weeks and after 1 year, participants returned for two simulated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies (Sim2-pump failure and Sim3-access insufficiency). Sim2 was a case encountered during teaching, whereas Sim3 was novel. A critical action, necessary for resolution of each scenario, was preidentified for timing. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was time required to perform critical actions. Twenty-one fellows participated in the study (simulation, 10; traditional, 11). Groups had similar scenario scores (p = 0.4) and times to critical action (p = 0.8) on Sim1. At 6 weeks, both groups had similar scenario scores on Sim2 (p = 0.5), but the simulation group scored higher on Sim3 (p = 0.03). Times to critical actions were shorter in the simulation group during Sim2 (127 vs 174 s, p = 0.004) and Sim3 (159 vs 300 s; p = 0.04). These findings persisted at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In novice critical care fellows, simulation-based extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training is superior to traditional training. Benefits transfer to novel scenarios and are maintained over the long term. Further studies evaluating the utility of simulation in other learner groups and for maintenance of proficiency are required.