Approach to patient with cough by American and Chinese respiratory specialist
Cough is a common pediatric condition. Acute cough is often considered to be self-limiting and not requiring clinical management. However, pediatric patients and their parents often seek remedies for an acute cough. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) specialists have been treating pediatric cough for millennia. Here we present a case of pediatric cough and the approaches taken to it by a Western and Chinese respiratory specialist. We conclude that TCM may provide important and useful insights into the treatment of such pediatric respiratory disease.
Diagnosis of EVALI in the COVID-19 era
Care recommendations for the respiratory complications of esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) with esophageal atresia (EA) is a common congenital anomaly that is associated with significant respiratory morbidity throughout life. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for the diagnosis and management of the respiratory complications that are associated with the condition. As there are no randomized controlled studies on the subject, a group of experts used a modification of the Rand Appropriateness Method to describe the various aspects of the condition in terms of their relative importance, and to rate the available diagnostic methods and therapeutic interventions on the basis of their appropriateness and necessity. Specific recommendations were formulated and reported as Level A, B, and C based on whether they were based on "strong", "moderate" or "weak" agreement. The tracheomalacia that exists in the site of the fistula was considered the main abnormality that predisposes to all other respiratory complications due to airway collapse and impaired clearance of secretions. Aspiration due to impaired airway protection reflexes is the main underlying contributing mechanism. Flexible bronchoscopy is the main diagnostic modality, aided by imaging modalities, especially CT scans of the chest. Noninvasive positive airway pressure support, surgical techniques such as tracheopexy and rarely tracheostomy are required for the management of severe tracheomalacia. Regular long-term follow-up by a multidisciplinary team was considered imperative. Specific templates outlining the elements of the clinical respiratory evaluation according to the patients' age were also developed.
Airway manifestations of sarcoidosis in adolescents
Endobronchial sarcoid lesions have previously been described and visualized upon bronchoscopy in adult patients with pulmonary sarcoid involvement. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has come into favor as the preferred method of diagnosis, but it remains a novel technique in pediatric pulmonology. We describe the first two known cases of visualized endobronchial sarcoid lesions in the pediatric population with pathological confirmation of sarcoidosis with endobronchial and EBUS-TBNA biopsies.
The roles of a pediatric pulmonologist during the COVID-19 pandemic
Pediatric pulmonologists have been involved in the care of adult COVID-19 patients in a variety of ways, particularly in areas with a high concentration of cases. This invited commentary is a series of questions to Dr Mikhail Kazachkov, a pediatric pulmonologist at New York University, about his experiences to date in a major COVID-19 "hotspot" and his thoughts about how other pediatric pulmonologists facing this situation can best support their colleagues.
Airway and esophageal eosinophils in children with severe uncontrolled asthma
AIM/OBJECTIVE:Children with severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA) have a high burden of symptoms and increased frequency of asthma exacerbations. Reflux esophagitis and eosinophilic esophagitis are important co-morbid factors for SUA. Both are associated with the presence of eosinophils in esophageal mucosa. We hypothesized that esophageal eosinophils are frequently present and correlate with the presence of airway eosinophils in children with SUA. METHOD/METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective database of children who underwent "triple endoscopy" (sleep laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] and endobronchial biopsy [EBB], and esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsy [EsB]) at our Aerodigestive Center for evaluation of SUA. Children with known cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and aspiration-related lung disease were excluded. RESULT/RESULTS:Twenty-four children (21 males) ages 2-16 years were studied. Elevated BAL eosinophils were found in 10 (42%) patients, endobronchial eosinophils in 16 (67%); 7 (29%) had endobronchial eosinophils without elevated BAL eosinophils. Esophageal eosinophils were found in 11 (46%) patients. There was a correlation between the amount of eosinophils in BAL and EBB (Râ€‰=â€‰0.43, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.05) airway eosinophils, defined as elevated BAL and/or EBB eosinophils, correlated with esophageal eosinophils (Râ€‰=â€‰0.41, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.047). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We concluded that airway and esophageal eosinophils are frequently present in children with SUA.
Aerodigestive dysbiosis in children with chronic cough
In pediatric patients with chronic cough, respiratory culture techniques commonly yield negative results. Studies using culture-independent methods have found a high relative abundance of oral microbes in the lower airways, suggesting that the topographical continuity, and dynamics of the intraluminal contents of the aerodigestive system likely influence the lower airway microbiota. We hypothesize that in subjects with chronic cough, clinical diagnosis will correlate with distinct microbial signatures detected using culture-independent methods.
Respiratory care in familial dysautonomia: Systematic review and expert consensus recommendations
BACKGROUND:Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type-III) is a rare genetic disease caused by impaired development of sensory and afferent autonomic nerves. As a consequence, patients develop neurogenic dysphagia with frequent aspiration, chronic lung disease, and chemoreflex failure leading to severe sleep disordered breathing. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders in familial dysautonomia. METHODS:We performed a systematic review to summarize the evidence related to our questions. When evidence was not sufficient, we used data from the New York University Familial Dysautonomia Patient Registry, a database containing ongoing prospective comprehensive clinical data from 670 cases. The evidence was summarized and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Evidence-based and expert recommendations were then formulated, written, and graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. RESULTS:Recommendations were formulated for or against specific diagnostic tests and clinical interventions. Diagnostic tests reviewed included radiological evaluation, dysphagia evaluation, gastroesophageal evaluation, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage, pulmonary function tests, laryngoscopy and polysomnography. Clinical interventions and therapies reviewed included prevention and management of aspiration, airway mucus clearance and chest physical therapy, viral respiratory infections, precautions during high altitude or air-flight travel, non-invasive ventilation during sleep, antibiotic therapy, steroid therapy, oxygen therapy, gastrostomy tube placement, Nissen fundoplication surgery, scoliosis surgery, tracheostomy and lung lobectomy. CONCLUSIONS:Expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of respiratory disease in patients with familial dysautonomia are provided. Frequent reassessment and updating will be needed.
Prevalence and characteristics of sleep-disordered breathing in familial dysautonomia
OBJECTIVE:Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired development of sensory and afferent autonomic nerves. Untreated sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been reported to increase the risk of sudden unexpected death in FD. We aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of SDB in FD. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:measurements during different sleep stages. RESULTS:Overall, 85% of adults and 91% of pediatric patients had some degree of SDB. Obstructive sleep apneas were more severe in adults (8.5 events/h in adults vs. 3.5 events/h in children, pÂ =Â 0.04), whereas central apneas were more severe (10.8 vs. 2.8 events/h, pÂ =Â 0.04) and frequent (61.8% vs. 45%, pÂ =Â 0.017) in children. Overall, a higher apnea-hypopnea index was associated with increased severity of hypoxia and hypoventilation, although in a significant fraction of patients (67% and 46%), hypoxemia and hypoventilation occurred independent of apneas. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:monitoring during polysomnography in all patients with FD to detect SDB.
Structure and Functions of Pediatric Aerodigestive Programs: A Consensus Statement
Aerodigestive programs provide coordinated interdisciplinary care to pediatric patients with complex congenital or acquired conditions affecting breathing, swallowing, and growth. Although there has been a proliferation of programs, as well as national meetings, interest groups and early research activity, there is, as of yet, no consensus definition of an aerodigestive patient, standardized structure, and functions of an aerodigestive program or a blueprint for research prioritization. The Delphi method was used by a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional panel of aerodigestive providers to obtain consensus on 4 broad content areas related to aerodigestive care: (1) definition of an aerodigestive patient, (2) essential construct and functions of an aerodigestive program, (3) identification of aerodigestive research priorities, and (4) evaluation and recognition of aerodigestive programs and future directions. After 3 iterations of survey, consensus was obtained by either a supermajority of 75% or stability in median ranking on 33 of 36 items. This included a standard definition of an aerodigestive patient, level of participation of specific pediatric disciplines in a program, essential components of the care cycle and functions of the program, feeding and swallowing assessment and therapy, procedural scope and volume, research priorities and outcome measures, certification, coding, and funding. We propose the first consensus definition of the aerodigestive care model with specific recommendations regarding associated personnel, infrastructure, research, and outcome measures. We hope that this may provide an initial framework to further standardize care, develop clinical guidelines, and improve outcomes for aerodigestive patients.