Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Emergency seizure management

Kazl, Cassandra; LaJoie, Josiane
Seizures are a common presentation in both emergency departments and general pediatric practices. Epilepsy affects more than 3.4 million people nationwide, of which approximately 500,000 are children, with greater than 200,000 first-time seizures each year.1 Of the affected individuals, as many as 100,000 are estimated to experience status epilepticus (SE). Both general practitioners and neurologists alike must be able to define, recognize and treat seizure emergencies. This review article defines and describes SE, discusses the emergency evaluation and management of SE that is both new-onset and breakthrough in people with epilepsy, reviews the current treatment recommendations for SE in both the home and hospital settings, and introduces special populations that may be at high risk for SE or other seizure emergencies.
PMID: 33183979
ISSN: 1538-3199
CID: 4671892

Definition, Classification, and Epidemiology of Concussion

Kazl, Cassandra; Torres, Alcy
The term "concussion" is often ambiguous for patients and caregivers, and likewise for many practitioners the definition remains imprecise. Our understanding of concussion over the last several years has grown and evolved due to the extensive data that is now being collected, and similarly, our definition of the term should too. While there is now more data and literature becoming available regarding pediatric concussion, it seems that there remains a lack of clarity and agreement about the definition and classification of concussion. This article aims to provide a brief review of the available literature on pediatric concussion definition and classifications, and hopefully present the most recent precise and accepted definition and classification system. Surely the definition of concussion will continue to evolve as new knowledge develops.
PMID: 31235026
ISSN: 1558-0776
CID: 3980052

Early-life experience alters response of developing brain to seizures

Kazl, Cassandra; Foote, L Tracy; Kim, Min-Jung; Koh, Sookyong
Prolonged seizures during childhood are associated with behavior problems, memory impairment and school failure. No effective treatment currently exists after seizures to mitigate neuronal injury and long-term neurological sequelae for children with epilepsy. We studied the therapeutic efficacy of early-life environment on seizure-induced behavioral deficits, neuronal injury and the inflammatory reaction using the kainic acid (KA) seizure model. Two rearing conditions, maternal separation for 3 h daily versus maternal care in an enriched environment, were followed by single housing for the former (Deprived) and group housing in an enriched environment for the latter (Enriched). To examine the influence of differential rearing on the behavioral effects of early-life seizures, KA was injected on P21. On P28, marked reduction in exploratory behavior was noted after seizures only in the Deprived group. To investigate seizure-induced hippocampal injury, a separate group of rats were injected with KA on P35 since consistent seizure-induced neuronal injury is observed only in mature rats. Brains of rats sacrificed on P37 displayed a significant reduction in DNA fragmentation and microglial activation in Enriched compared to Deprived animals. Our results suggest that a nurturing early environment can enhance the ability of the developing brain to recover from seizures and provide a buffer against their damaging effects. While the nurturing environment was neuroprotective, the combination of deprived rearing and the insult of early-life seizures resulted in significant behavioral deficits, an increase in neuronal injury and activation of microglia in young rats.
PMID: 19501578
ISSN: 1872-6240
CID: 3980042


Qi, Jin; Daviau, Emily; Kazl, C.; Fox, P.; Kim, M.; Koh, Sookyong
ISSN: 0013-9580
CID: 3980062