Outcomes After Tricuspid Valve Operations in Patients With Drug-Use Infective Endocarditis
The increase of intravenous drug use has led to an increase in right-sided infective endocarditis and its complications including septic pulmonary embolism. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of tricuspid valve (TV) operations in patients with drug-use infective endocarditis (DU-IE) complicated by septic pulmonary emboli (PE). Hospitalizations for DU-IE complicated by septic PE were identified from the National Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2019. Outcomes of patients who underwent TV operations were compared with medical management. The primary outcome was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as in-hospital mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest. An inverse probability of treatment weighted analysis was utilized to adjust for the differences between the cohorts. A total of 9,029 cases of DU-IE with septic PE were identified (mean age 33.6 years), of which 818 patients (9.1%) underwent TV operation. Surgery was associated with a higher rate of MACE (14.5% vs 10.8%, p <0.01), driven by a higher rate of cardiogenic shock (6.1% vs 1.2%, p <0.01) but a lower rate of mortality (2.7% vs 5.7%, p <0.01). Moreover, TV operation was associated with an increased need for permanent pacemakers, blood transfusions, and a higher risk of acute kidney injury. In the inverse probability treatment weighting analysis, TV operation was associated with an increased risk for MACE driven by a higher rate of cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest, but a lower rate of mortality when compared with medical therapy alone. In conclusion, TV operations in patients with DU-IE complicated by septic PE are associated with an increased risk for MACE but a decreased risk of mortality. Although surgical management may be beneficial in some patients, alternative options such as percutaneous debulking should be considered given the higher risk.
Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN): a cohort profile
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:The aims of the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN) are to develop a registry to investigate the epidemiology of cardiac critical illness and to establish a multicenter research network to conduct randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in patients with cardiac critical illness. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:The CCCTN was founded in 2017 with 16 centers and has grown to a research network of over 40 academic and clinical centers in the United States and Canada. Each center enters data for consecutive cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) admissions for at least two months of each calendar year. More than 20Â 000 unique CICU admissions are now included in the CCCTN Registry. To date, scientific observations from the CCCTN Registry include description of variations in care, the epidemiology and outcomes of all CICU patients, as well as subsets of patients with specific disease states, such as shock, heart failure, renal dysfunction, and respiratory failure. The CCCTN has also characterized utilization patterns, including use of mechanical circulatory support in response to changes in the heart transplantation allocation system, and the use and impact of multidisciplinary shock teams. Over years of multicenter collaboration, the CCCTN has established a robust research network to facilitate multicenter registry-based randomized trials in patients with cardiac critical illness. CONCLUSIONS:The CCCTN is a large, prospective registry dedicated to describing processes-of-care and expanding clinical knowledge in cardiac critical illness. The CCCTN will serve as an investigational platform from which to conduct randomized controlled trials in this important patient population.
Sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in COVID-19 illness
BACKGROUND:Male sex, elevated troponin levels, and elevated D-dimer levels are associated with more complicated COVID-19 illness and greater mortality; however, while there are known sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in other disease states, it is unknown whether they exist in the setting of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE:We assessed whether sex modified the relationship between troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness (defined as mechanical ventilation, ICU admission or transfer, discharge to hospice, or death). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large, academic health system. We used multivariable regression to assess associations between sex, troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. To test whether sex modified the relationship between severe COVID-19 illness and troponin or D-dimer, models with interaction terms were utilized. RESULTS:Among 4,574 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex was associated with higher levels of troponin and greater odds of severe COVID-19 illness, but lower levels of initial D-dimer when compared with female sex. While sex did not modify the relationship between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, peak D-dimer level was more strongly associated with severe COVID-19 illness in male patients compared to female patients (males: OR=2.91, 95%CI=2.63-2.34, p<0.001; females: OR=2.31, 95%CI=2.04-2.63, p<0.001; p-interaction=0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sex did not modify the association between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, but did modify the association between peak D-dimer and severe COVID-19 illness, suggesting greater prognostic value for D-dimer in males with COVID-19.
Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: An Analysis from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network
BACKGROUND:Acute heart failure (HF) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been hypothesized to relate to inflammatory activation. METHODS:We evaluated consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for COVID-19 across 6 centers in the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network, identifying patients with vs. without acute HF. Acute HF was sub-classified as "de novo" vs. "acute-on-chronic" based on the absence or presence of prior HF. Clinical features, biomarker profiles, and outcomes were compared. RESULTS:Among 901 COVID-19 ICU admissions, 80 (8.9%) had acute HF, including 18 (2.0%) with classic cardiogenic shock (CS) and 37 (4.1%) with vasodilatory CS. The majority (n=45) were de novo HF presentations. Compared to patients without acute HF, those with acute HF had higher cardiac troponin (cTn) and natriuretic peptides, and similar inflammatory biomarkers; patients with de novo HF had the highest cTn. Notably, among critically ill patients with COVID-19, illness severity (median SOFA, 8 [IQR, 5-10] vs. 6 [4-9]; p=0.025) and mortality (43.8% vs. 32.4%; p=0.040) were modestly higher in patients with vs. without acute HF. CONCLUSIONS:Among critically ill COVID-19 patients, acute HF is distinguished more by biomarkers of myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress than by biomarkers of inflammation.
Cardiogenic shock complicating multisystem inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 infection: a case report
BACKGROUND:With the high prevalence of COVID-19 infections worldwide, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. This syndrome presents in patients several weeks after infection with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombosis, elevated inflammatory markers, hemodynamic compromise and cardiac dysfunction. Treatment is often with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The pathologic basis of myocardial injury in MIS-A, however, is not well characterized. In our case report, we obtained endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pattern of myocardial injury similar to that found in COVID-19 cardiac specimens. CASE PRESENTATION:A 26-year-old male presented with fevers, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 5Â weeks after his COVID-19 infection. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative and IgG was positive, consistent with prior infection. He was found to be in cardiogenic shock with biventricular failure, requiring inotropes and diuretics. Given concern for acute fulminant myocarditis, an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was performed, showing an inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of interstitial macrophages with scant T lymphocytes. The histologic pattern was similar to that of cardiac specimens from COVID-19 patients, helping rule out myocarditis as the prevailing diagnosis. His case was complicated by persistent hypoxemia, and a computed tomography scan revealed pulmonary emboli. He received IVIg, steroids, and anticoagulation with rapid recovery of biventricular function. CONCLUSIONS:MIS-A should be considered as the diagnosis in patients presenting several weeks after COVID-19 infection with severe inflammation and multi-organ involvement. In our case, EMB facilitated identification of MIS-A and guided therapy. The patient's biventricular function recovered with IVIg and steroids.
De Novo vs Acute-on-Chronic Presentations of Heart Failure-Related Cardiogenic Shock: Insights from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Registry
BACKGROUND:Heart failure-related cardiogenic shock (HF-CS) accounts for an increasing proportion of cases of CS in contemporary cardiac intensive care units. Whether the chronicity of HF identifies distinct clinical profiles of HF-CS is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We evaluated admissions to cardiac intensive care units for HF-CS in 28 centers using data from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network registry (2017-2020). HF-CS was defined as CS due to ventricular failure in the absence of acute myocardial infarction and was classified as de novo vs acute-on-chronic based on the absence or presence of a prior diagnosis of HF, respectively. Clinical features, resource use, and outcomes were compared among groups. Of 1405 admissions with HF-CS, 370 had de novo HF-CS (26.3%), and 1035 had acute-on-chronic HF-CS (73.7%). Patients with de novo HF-CS had a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease (all P < 0.01). Median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were higher in those with de novo HF-CS (8; 25th-75th: 5-11) vs acute-on-chronic HF-CS (6; 25th-75th: 4-9, P < 0.01), as was the proportion of Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) shock stage E (46.1% vs 26.1%, P < 0.01). After adjustment for clinical covariates and preceding cardiac arrest, the risk of in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with de novo HF-CS than in those with acute-on-chronic HF-CS (adjusted hazard ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.75, Pâ€¯=â€¯0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Despite having fewer comorbidities, patients with de novo HF-CS had more severe shock presentations and worse in-hospital outcomes. Whether HF disease chronicity is associated with time-dependent compensatory adaptations, unique pathobiological features and responses to treatment in patients presenting with HF-CS warrants further investigation.
Tricuspid valve vegetation debulking using the AngioVac system [Case Report]
Tricuspid valve endocarditis with recurrent septic pulmonary emboli is an indication for surgery. We present the case of a 36-year old man with tricuspid valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli with percutaneous extraction of the vegetation. We discuss the nuances of such an approach and the need for more evidence in the management of these complex patients.
Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19
BACKGROUND:Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS:In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS:The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).
Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Noncritically Ill Patients with Covid-19
BACKGROUND:Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS:In this open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and who were not critically ill (which was defined as an absence of critical care-level organ support at enrollment) to receive pragmatically defined regimens of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. This outcome was evaluated with the use of a Bayesian statistical model for all patients and according to the baseline d-dimer level. RESULTS:The trial was stopped when prespecified criteria for the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation were met. Among 2219 patients in the final analysis, the probability that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation increased organ support-free days as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 98.6% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% credible interval, 1.03 to 1.58). The adjusted absolute between-group difference in survival until hospital discharge without organ support favoring therapeutic-dose anticoagulation was 4.0 percentage points (95% credible interval, 0.5 to 7.2). The final probability of the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation over usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 97.3% in the high d-dimer cohort, 92.9% in the low d-dimer cohort, and 97.3% in the unknown d-dimer cohort. Major bleeding occurred in 1.9% of the patients receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 0.9% of those receiving thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:In noncritically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis. (ATTACC, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT04372589, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT02735707.).
Dual-Guide Triple-Kiss Technique for LeftÂ Main Trifurcation