Author Correction: Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the effects of chemotherapy on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its tumor microenvironment
Prognostic Factors for Non-anastomotic Biliary Strictures Following Adult Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The development of non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) following orthotopic adult liver transplantation (OLT) is associated with significant morbidity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify all prognostic factors for the development of NAS. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of the included studies. Using the random-effects model, we calculated the weighted pooled odds ratios (OR), mean differences (MD), hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the risk factors. RESULTS:Based on 19 international studies that included a total of 8269 adult LT patients, we calculated an 8% overall incidence of NAS. In this study, 7 potential prognostic factors were associated with a statistically significant hazard ratio for NAS in pooled analyses including (1) DCD donors compared to DBD donors (2) PSC as an indication for a liver transplant (3) Roux-en-Y bile duct reconstruction compared to duct-to-duct reconstruction (4) hepatic artery thrombosis (5) longer cold ischemia time (6) longer warm ischemia time (7) and total operative times. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified 7 prognostic factors for the development of NAS following OLT. These findings might lay the groundwork for development of diagnostic algorithms to better risk stratify patients at risk for development of NAS.
Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the effects of chemotherapy on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its tumor microenvironment
The tumor microenvironment (TME) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a complex ecosystem that drives tumor progression; however, in-depth single cell characterization of the PDAC TME and its role in response to therapy is lacking. Here, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on freshly collected human PDAC samples either before or after chemotherapy. Overall, we find a heterogeneous mixture of basal and classical cancer cell subtypes, along with distinct cancer-associated fibroblast and macrophage subpopulations. Strikingly, classical and basal-like cancer cells exhibit similar transcriptional responses to chemotherapy and do not demonstrate a shift towards a basal-like transcriptional program among treated samples. We observe decreased ligand-receptor interactions in treated samples, particularly between TIGIT on CD8 + T cells and its receptor on cancer cells, and identify TIGIT as the major inhibitory checkpoint molecule of CD8 + T cells. Our results suggest that chemotherapy profoundly impacts the PDAC TME and may promote resistance to immunotherapy.
Tumor infiltrating T cell states and checkpoint inhibitor expression in hepatic and pancreatic malignancies
Hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancies are difficult-to-treat and continue to to have a high mortality and significant therapeutic resistance to standard therapies. Immune oncology (IO) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in several solid malignancies when combined with chemotherapy, whereas response rates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) are poor. While promising in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), there remains an unmet need to fully leverage IO therapies to treat HPB tumors. We therefore defined T cell subsets in the tumor microenvironment of HPB patients utilizing a novel, multiparameter flow cytometry and bioinformatics analysis. Our findings quantify the T cell phenotypic states in relation to checkpoint receptor expression. We demonstrate the presence of CD103+ tissue resident memory T cells (TRM), CCR7+ central memory T cells, and CD57+ terminally differentiated effector cells across all HPB cancers, while the anti-tumor function was dampened by expression of multiple co-inhibitory checkpoint receptors. Terminally exhausted T cells lacking co-stimulatory receptors were more prevalent in PDA, whereas partially exhausted T cells expressing both co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory receptors were most prevalent in HCC, especially in early stage. HCC patients had significantly higher TRM with a phenotype that could confer restored activation in response to immune checkpoint therapies. Further, we found a lack of robust alteration in T cell activation state or checkpoint expression in response to chemotherapy in PDA patients. These results support that HCC patients might benefit most from combined checkpoint therapies, whereas efforts other than cytotoxic chemotherapy will likely be necessary to increase overall T cell activation in CCA and PDA for future clinical development.
Corrigendum: Tumor infiltrating T cell states and checkpoint inhibitor expression in hepatic and pancreatic malignancies
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1067352.].
Impact of comprehensive family history and genetic analysis in the multidisciplinary pancreatic tumor clinic setting
BACKGROUND:Genetic testing is recommended for all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Prior research demonstrates that multidisciplinary pancreatic cancer clinics (MDPCs) improve treatment- and survival-related outcomes for PDAC patients. However, limited information exists regarding the utility of integrated genetics in the MDPC setting. We hypothesized that incorporating genetics in an MDPC serving both PDAC patients and high-risk individuals (HRI) could: (1) improve compliance with guideline-based genetic testing for PDAC patients, and (2) optimize HRI identification and PDAC surveillance participation to improve early detection and survival. METHODS:Demographics, genetic testing results, and pedigrees were reviewed for PDAC patients and HRI at one institution over 45â€‰months. Genetic testing analyzed 16 PDAC-associated genes at minimum. RESULTS:Overall, 969 MDPC subjects were evaluated during the study period; another 56 PDAC patients were seen outside the MDPC. Among 425 MDPC PDAC patients, 333 (78.4%) completed genetic testing; 29 (8.7%) carried a PDAC-related pathogenic germline variant (PGV). Additionally, 32 (9.6%) met familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) criteria. These PDAC patients had 191 relatives eligible for surveillance or genetic testing. Only 2/56 (3.6%) non-MDPC PDAC patients completed genetic testing (pâ€‰<â€‰0.01). Among 544 HRI, 253 (46.5%) had a known PGV or a designation of FPC, and were eligible for surveillance at baseline; of the remainder, 15/291 (5.2%) were eligible following genetic testing and PGV identification. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Integrating genetics into the multidisciplinary setting significantly improved genetic testing compliance by reducing logistical barriers for PDAC patients, and clarified cancer risks for their relatives while conserving clinical resources. Overall, we identified 206 individuals newly eligible for surveillance or genetic testing (191 relatives of MDPC PDAC patients, and 15 HRI from this cohort), enabling continuity of care for PDAC patients and at-risk relatives in one clinic.
Post-transplant biliary complications: advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative therapy in patients with end-stage liver disease. Long-term survival is excellent, yet LT recipients are at risk of significant complications. Biliary complications are an important source of morbidity after LT, with an estimated incidence of 5%-32%. Post-LT biliary complications include strictures (anastomotic and non-anastomotic), bile leaks, stones, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Prompt recognition and management is critical as these complications are associated with mortality rates up to 20% and retransplantation rates up to 13%. This review aims to summarise our current understanding of risk factors, natural history, diagnostic testing, and treatment options for post-transplant biliary complications.
Standardization of EUS imaging and reporting in high-risk individuals of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: consensus statement of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Consortium (PRECEDE)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease most often diagnosed after local progression or metastatic dissemination, precluding resection and resulting in a high mortality rate. For individuals with elevated personal risk of the development of pancreatic cancer, EUS is a frequently used advanced imaging and diagnostic modality. However, there is variability in the expertise and definition of EUS findings among gastroenterologists, as well as lack of standardized reporting of relevant findings at the time of examination. Adoption of standardized EUS reporting, using a universally accepted and agreed upon terminology, is needed. METHODS:A consensus statement designed to create a standardized reporting template was authored by a multidisciplinary group of experts in pancreatic diseases that includes gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons, oncologists, and geneticists. This statement was developed using a modified Delphi process as part of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Consortium (PRECEDE) and >75% agreement was required to reach consensus. RESULTS:We identified reporting elements and present standardized reporting templates for EUS indications, procedural data, EUS image capture, and descriptors of findings, tissue sampling, and for postprocedural assessment of adequacy. CONCLUSIONS:Adoption of this standardized EUS reporting template should improve consistency in clinical decision making for individuals with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer by providing complete and accurate reporting of pancreatic abnormalities. Standardization will also help to facilitate research and clinical trial design by using clearly defined and consistent imaging descriptions, thus allowing for comparison of results across different centers.
Management of pancreatic fluid collections
Pancreatic fluid collections often develop as a complication of acute pancreatitis but can be seen in a variety of conditions including chronic pancreatitis, trauma, malignancy or post-operatively. It is important to classify a pancreatic fluid collection in order to optimize treatment strategies and management. Most interventions are targeted towards the management of delayed complications of pancreatitis, including pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis (WON), which often develop days to weeks after the initial episode of pancreatitis. Surgical, percutaneous, and endoscopic interventions are all possible methods for treatment of pancreatic fluid collections, however endoscopic drainage with endoscopic ultrasound has become first-line. Advances within endoscopic drainage strategies have also led to innovative changes in the specific stents used for treatment, with possible options including double pigtail plastic stents, fully covered self-expanding metal stents and lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS).
INCIDENCE AND PREDICTORS OF EARLY AND LATE READMISSION AFTER ACUTE PANCREATITIS [Meeting Abstract]