The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection
The acute effects of hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation on tumor and liver capillary blood flow
The acute effects of photoradiation after administering hematoporphyrin derivative (Hpd) on capillary blood flow were studied in intrahepatic tumors and normal liver. The tumors were solitary Walker carcinosarcomas implanted within the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats. Capillary flow was measured by a laser doppler monitor with its probe positioned over the tumor or over normal liver. Within a minute after intraportal Hpd injection (1.7 mg), capillary flow in the tumors began to decrease. Minimal levels of flow were maintained for as long as 15 minutes after Hpd injection with no observed recovery of flow back to control levels. Ratio of minimal flow/control flow averaged 0.36. Similar results were seen in studies on normal liver tissue. These studies demonstrate the extremely rapid vasoactive effects caused by photoradiation of Hpd. Vasoconstriction, vascular stasis and ischemia have proven to be important mechanisms in producing tumor cell destruction by photodynamic therapy.