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Central Retinal Artery Visualization with Cone-Beam CT Angiography

Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Shepherd, Timothy M; Nossek, Erez; Yaghi, Shadi; Gold, Doria M; Ishida, Koto; Rucker, Janet C; Belinsky, Irina; Kim, Eleanore; Grory, Brian Mac; Mir, Osman; Hagiwara, Mari; Agarwal, Shashank; Young, Matthew G; Galetta, Steven L; Nelson, Peter Kim
Background There are multiple tools available to visualize the retinal and choroidal vasculature of the posterior globe. However, there are currently no reliable in vivo imaging techniques that can visualize the entire retrobulbar course of the retinal and ciliary vessels. Purpose To identify and characterize the central retinal artery (CRA) using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained as part of diagnostic cerebral angiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients with catheter DSA performed between October 2019 and October 2020 were included if CBCT angiography included the orbit in the field of view. The CBCT angiography data sets were postprocessed with a small field-of-view volume centered in the posterior globe to a maximum resolution of 0.2 mm. The following were evaluated: CRA origin, CRA course, CRA point of penetration into the optic nerve sheath, bifurcation of the CRA at the papilla, visualization of anatomic variants, and visualization of the central retinal vein. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Twenty-one patients with 24 visualized orbits were included in the analysis (mean age, 55 years ± 15; 14 women). Indications for angiography were as follows: diagnostic angiography (n = 8), aneurysm treatment (n = 6), or other (n = 7). The CRA was identified in all orbits; the origin, course, point of penetration of the CRA into the optic nerve sheath, and termination in the papilla were visualized in all orbits. The average length of the intraneural segment was 10.6 mm (range, 7-18 mm). The central retinal vein was identified in six of 24 orbits. Conclusion Cone-beam CT, performed during diagnostic angiography, consistently demonstrated the in vivo central retinal artery, demonstrating excellent potential for multiple diagnostic and therapeutic applications. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
PMID: 34783593
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5049072

Epibulbar Subconjunctival Apocrine Hidrocystoma [Case Report]

Charles, Norman C; Raju, Leela V; Kim, Eleanore T
Apocrine hidrocystomas are benign cystic tumors derived from apocrine sweat glands; they are most commonly located in the skin of the head and neck regions. Ophthalmic occurrences characteristically appear at the lash line and canthi of the eyelid, although rare instances have been described in the conjunctiva, caruncle, and orbit. The authors describe an exceptional instance of a mobile epibulbar subconjunctival apocrine hidrocystoma in a 57-year-old woman without a history of previous ocular injury or surgery. Histopathology of the excised specimen displayed an empty cyst lined by a double layer of cuboidal epithelium with the inner layer exhibiting periodic acid-Schiff-positive apical decapitation secretion. Confirmatory immunohistochemistry included reactivity with cytokeratin-7, smooth muscle actin, D2-40, and CDGFP-15.
PMID: 34284427
ISSN: 1537-2677
CID: 5048612

Porocarcinoma of the Eyelid Presenting as an Umbilicated Lesion

Charles, Norman C; Kim, Eleanore T
PMID: 33782327
ISSN: 1537-2677
CID: 5048562

Gender Compensation Gap for Ophthalmologists in the First Year of Clinical Practice

Jia, Jing Sasha; Lazzaro, Alexander; Lidder, Alcina K; Elgin, Ceyhun; Alcantara-Castillo, Jennifer; Gedde, Steven J; Khouri, Albert S; Shukla, Aakriti Garg; Sperber, Laurence T D; Law, Janice C; Modi, Yasha S; Kim, Eleanore T; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Winn, Bryan J; Chen, Royce W; Al-Aswad, Lama A
OBJECTIVE:To identify the role of gender and other factors in influencing ophthalmologists' compensation. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:U.S. practicing ophthalmologists. METHODS:Between January and March 2020, an anonymous survey was sent to U.S. residency program directors and practicing ophthalmologists who recently completed residency training. Respondents who completed residency ≤10 years ago and responded to questions about gender, fellowship training, state of practice, and salary were included. Propensity score match (PSM) analysis was performed with age, academic residency, top residency, fellowship, state median wage, practice type, ethnicity and number of work days. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis controlled for additional factors along with the aforementioned variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Base starting salary with bonus (SWB) received in the first year of clinical position was the main outcome measure. A multiplier of 1.2 (20%) was added to the base salary to account for bonus. RESULTS:Of 684 respondents, 384 (56% female, 44% male) from 68 programs were included. Female ophthalmologists received a mean initial SWB that was $33,139.80 less than their male colleagues (12.5%, p=0.00). PSM analysis showed a SWB difference of -$27,273.89 (10.3% gap, p=0.0015). Additionally, SWB differences were calculated with the number of work days substituted by OR days [-$19727.85 (8.60% gap, p=0.0092)] and clinic days [--$27793.67 (10.5% gap, p=0.0013)] in separate PSM analyses. The SWB differences between genders were significant using MLR analyses, which also controlled for work, clinic, and OR days separately (-$22261.49, $-18604.65, and $-16191.26, respectively; p=0.017, p=0.015, p=0.002). Gender independently predicted income in all 3 analyses (p<0.05). Although an association between gender and the attempt to negotiate was not detected, a greater portion of men subjectively reported success in negotiation (p=0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Female ophthalmologists earn significantly less than their male colleagues in the first year of clinical practice. Salary differences persist after controlling for demographic, educational, and practice type variables with MLR and PSM analyses. These income differences may lead to a substantial loss of accumulated earnings over an individual's career.
PMID: 33248156
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 4693662

Myositis of an Extraocular Muscle, a Possible Drug Reaction: Histopathologic and Immunopathologic Analysis

Charles, Norman C; Rebhun, Carl B; Lidder, Alcina K; Coulon, Sara J; Kim, Eleanore T
A 58-year-old man presented with left-sided orbital inflammation, including chemosis and a lateral rectus abduction defect. Initially presumed to represent cellulitis, the condition responded poorly to oral and intravenous antibiotics. CT showed the epicenter of an infiltrate to involve the lateral rectus. The patient improved dramatically when oral prednisone was added. Lateral rectus biopsy displayed intramuscular polyclonal lymphoid infiltrates, rich with eosinophils. Complete resolution of the inflammatory process was confirmed by a follow-up CT. The presumptive diagnosis was idiopathic orbital myositis, an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. However, the patient had taken rosuvastatin, which has been rarely associated with diplopia and ophthalmoplegia, raising the question of whether this case was truly idiopathic.
PMID: 33587420
ISSN: 1537-2677
CID: 4806532

Gender Distribution and Rates of Publication of Abstracts Presented at the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Meeting Over a 25-Year Period

Tooley, Andrea A; Tran, Ann Q; Rebhun, Carl B; Paulose, Sefy; Kim, Eleanore; Belinsky, Irina; Lisman, Richard
PMID: 34011913
ISSN: 1537-2677
CID: 4877372

Ophthalmic artery occlusion due to orbital compartment syndrome after a frontotemporal craniotomy

DeMaria, Lauren; Tran, Ann Q; Tooley, Andrea A; Abdelhakim, Aliaa; Belinsky, Irina; Kim, Eleanore
A 32-year-old female with a right frontal lobe glioma underwent an elective frontotemporal craniotomy. One hour postoperatively, the patient developed a right orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) with unilateral acute vision loss, proptosis, afferent pupillary defect, and complete ophthalmoplegia. The patient underwent emergent lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Neuroimaging revealed extensive vascular congestion along the extraocular muscles at the orbital apex. Retinal imaging demonstrated an ophthalmic artery occlusion. OCS following a frontal or frontotemporal craniotomy relates to increased orbital venous congestion from direct compression of the myocutaneous flap and subsequent intraorbital pressure elevation, vascular compromise, and ocular ischemia.
PMCID:8312523
PMID: 34318304
ISSN: 2772-3089
CID: 4949682

Placement of a PROPEL sinus implant during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

Iyengar, Nishanth S; Tran, Ann Q; North, Victoria S; Voigt, Erich P; Kim, Eleanore T
PMID: 33491533
ISSN: 1744-5108
CID: 4766912

Ossifying Pilomatrixoma of the Eyelid

Charles, Norman C; Kim, Eleanore T
Pilomatrixoma, an uncommon, usually benign cutaneous appendageal tumor, shows differentiation toward the hair follicle matrix cell. It undergoes various histopathologic stages, early on displaying epithelial and shadow cells along with granulomatous inflammation. In later stages, illustrated by this unusual case, epithelial cells disappear and are replaced by calcification and ossification. Immunohistochemistry in the current case showed transitional cell reactivity for β-catenin, probably linking the tumor to a mutation in the β-catenin gene CTNNB1. There was also transitional cell positivity for cyclin D1, a marker found in matrical cells of the human hair follicle. While pilomatrixoma occurs occasionally in the eyelid, the ossified eyelid variant in the current case is very rare, with only one preceding description in the literature.
PMID: 32304502
ISSN: 1537-2677
CID: 4401872

Living with COVID-19: A Perspective from New York Area Ophthalmology Residency Program Directors at the Epicenter of the Pandemic [Editorial]

Chen, Royce W S; Abazari, Azin; Dhar, Sonya; Fredrick, Douglas R; Friedman, Ilana B; Dagi Glass, Lora R; Khouri, Albert S; Kim, Eleanore T; Laudi, John; Park, Sunju; Reddy, Harsha S; Rosenberg, Jamie B; Sandler, Shlomit F; Shrivastava, Anurag; Sun, Grace; Winokur, Jules
PMCID:7204687
PMID: 32387482
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 4437912