Is Lactoferrin Supplementation Beneficial for All Preterm Infants?
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒHuman milk (HM) has antibacterial properties due to the presence of immune-modulators, including lactoferrin (LF). This study will determine effect(s) of HM maturation, fortification, and storage conditions on LF levels and its antibacterial properties. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:. RESULTS:â€ƒThe highest level of LF in preterm HM was observed in the first week of lactation. However, storage of preterm HM at 4Â°C decreased LF levels significantly. Both LF levels and antibacterial activity in preterm HM was lower compared with term HM, but significantly higher than donor HM even after HM-based fortification. LF supplementation of donor HM improved its antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒPreterm infants fed donor HM, formula, or stored HM at 4Â°C may benefits from LF supplementation to improve HM antibacterial properties. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Milk LF levels vary with storage and maturity.. Â· Donor milk is deficient in LF even after adding HM-based fortification.. Â· Donor HM and formula fed infants may benefit from LF..
From kamishibai card to key card: a family-targeted quality improvement initiative to reduce paediatric central line-associated bloodstream infections
BACKGROUND:Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are major contributors to preventable harm in the inpatient paediatric setting. Despite multiple guidelines to reduce CLABSI, sustaining reliable central line maintenance bundle compliance remains elusive. We identified frontline and family engagement as key drivers for this initiative. The baseline CLABSI rate for all our paediatric inpatient units (January 2016-January 2017) was 1.71/1000 central line days with maintenance bundle compliance at 87.9% (monthly range 44%-100%). OBJECTIVE:To reduce CLABSI by increasing central line maintenance bundle compliance to greater than 90% using kamishibai card (K-card) audits and family 'key card' education. METHODS:We transitioned our central line maintenance bundle audits from checklists to directly observed K-card audits. K-cards list the central line maintenance bundle elements to be reviewed with frontline staff. Key cards are cue cards developed using a plain-language summary of CLABSI K-cards and used by frontline staff to educate families. Key cards were distributed to families of children with central lines to simultaneously engage patients, families and frontline staff after a successful implementation of the K-card audit process. A survey was used to obtain feedback from families. RESULTS:In the postintervention period (February 2017-December 2019), our CLABSI rate was 0.63/1000 central line days, and maintenance bundle compliance improved to 97.1% (monthly range 86%-100%, p<0.001). Of the 45 family surveys distributed, 20 (44%) were returned. Nineteen respondents (95%) reported being extremely satisfied with the key card programme and provided positive comments. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Combining the key card programme with K-card audits was associated with improved maintenance bundle compliance and a reduction in CLABSI. This programme has the potential for use in multiple healthcare improvement initiatives.
Repeated lipopolysaccharide exposure leads to placental endotoxin tolerance
PROBLEM/OBJECTIVE:Placental infection induces increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon in which exposure to a dose of endotoxin makes tissue less responsive to subsequent exposures. The objective of our study is to determine if repeated exposure to endotoxin will induce a tolerant phenotype in normal human second trimester placental tissue. METHODS OF STUDY/METHODS:Human second trimester placental explants from elective termination of pregnancy were cultured and exposed to endotoxin (LPS). After 24 hours, the media was collected for analysis, and the explants were re-exposed to LPS after adding fresh media for another 24 hours. This process was repeated for a total of 4 LPS doses. The media was collected from each day and analyzed for cytokine levels. RESULTS:The first LPS treatment stimulated the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1Î², TNF-Î±. However, their production was significantly diminished with repeated LPS doses. Production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1ra and IL-10, was also stimulated by the first LPS treatment, but secretion was more gradually and moderately decreased with repeated LPS doses compared to the pro-inflammatory cytokines. The ratios of the anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1ra/IL-1Î² and IL-10/ TNF-Î±) indicate a progressively more anti-inflammatory milieu with repeated LPS doses. CONCLUSIONS:Repeated LPS exposure of human second trimester placental tissues induced endotoxin tolerance. We speculate that endotoxin tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface will protect the fetus from exaggerated inflammatory responses after repeated infectious exposure.
Maternal Risk Assessment Tool for Newborn Drops in the Mother-Baby Unit [Meeting Abstract]
Simulation as a tool for improving acquisition of neonatal resuscitation skills for obstetric residents
OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to compare the confidence, knowledge, and performance of obstetric residents taught initial neonatal resuscitation steps in a simulation-based versus lecture-based format. METHODS:Our study was a prospective randomized controlled trial of 33 obstetric residents. Baseline confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills assessments were performed. Subjects were randomized to traditional lecture (n = 14) or simulation-based (n = 19) neonatal resuscitation curriculum with a focus on initial steps. Follow-up assessments were performed at 3 and 6 months. Total confidence, knowledge, and clinical performance scores and change from baseline in these scores were calculated and compared between groups. RESULTS:Both the lecture-based and simulated-based groups demonstrated significant improvement in confidence, knowledge, and performance over time. However, compared with the lecture group, the magnitude of the mean change from baseline in performance scores was significantly greater in the simulation group at 3 months (2.9 versus 10.1; p < 0.001), but not at 6 months (7.0 versus 9.3; p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates the superiority of simulation in teaching obstetric residents initial neonatal resuscitation steps compared with a traditional lecture format. Skills are retained for upwards of 3-6 months. Refresher instruction by 6 months post-instruction may be beneficial.
Mid-aortic syndrome in two preterm infants [Case Report]
We report mid-aortic syndrome (MAC) in two preterm infants. Both infants developed malignant hypertension refractory to medical therapy and died early in infancy. Thus far, this account is of the two youngest patients with MAC.