The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) is predictive of 30-day postoperative complications and readmission in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD)
BACKGROUND:There is limited research regarding the association between the mFI-5 and postoperative complications among adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. METHODS:Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) database, patients with Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes forÂ >Â 7-level fusion orÂ <Â 7-level fusion with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD were identified between 2008 and 2016. Univariate analyses with post-hoc Bonferroni correction for demographics and preoperative factors were performed. Logistic regression assessed associations between mFI-5 scores and 30-day post-operative outcomes. RESULTS:2,120 patients met criteria. Patients with an mFI-5 score of 4 or 5 were excluded, given there were<20 patients with those scores. Patients with mFI-5 scores of 1 and 2 had increased 30-day rates of pneumonia (3.5Â % and 4.3Â % vs 1.6Â %), unplanned postoperative ventilation forÂ >Â 48Â h (3.1Â % and 4.3Â % vs 0.9Â %), and UTIs (4.4Â % and 7.4Â % vs 2.0Â %) than patients with a score of 0 (all, pÂ <Â 0.05). Logistic regression revealed that compared to an mFI-5 of 0, a score of 1 was an independent predictor of 30-day reoperations (ORÂ =Â 1.4; 95Â % CI 1.1-18). A score of 2 was an independent predictor of overall (ORÂ =Â 2.4; 95Â % CI 1.4-4.1) and related (ORÂ =Â 2.2; 95Â % CI 1.2-4.1) 30-day readmissions. A score of 3 was not predictive of any adverse outcome. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The mFI-5 score predicted complications and postoperative events in the ASD population. The mFI-5 may effectively predict 30-day readmissions. Further research is needed to identify the benefits and predictive value of mFI-5 as a risk assessment tool.
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parametric mapping using high spatiotemporal resolution Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel MRI and iterative joint estimation of the arterial input function and pharmacokinetic parameters
The aim of this work is to develop a data-driven quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI technique using Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel (GRASP) MRI with high spatial resolution and high flexible temporal resolution and pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis with an arterial input function (AIF) estimated directly from the data obtained from each patient. DCE-MRI was performed on 13 patients with gynecological malignancy using a 3-T MRI scanner with a single continuous golden-angle stack-of-stars acquisition and image reconstruction with two temporal resolutions, by exploiting a unique feature in GRASP that reconstructs acquired data with user-defined temporal resolution. Joint estimation of the AIF (both AIF shape and delay) and PK parameters was performed with an iterative algorithm that alternates between AIF and PK estimation. Computer simulations were performed to determine the accuracy (expressed as percentage error [PE]) and precision of the estimated parameters. PK parameters (volume transfer constant [Ktrans ], fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space [ve ], and blood plasma volume fraction [vp ]) and normalized root-mean-square error [nRMSE] (%) of the fitting errors for the tumor contrast kinetic data were measured both with population-averaged and data-driven AIFs. On patient data, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare nRMSE. Simulations demonstrated that GRASP image reconstruction with a temporal resolution of 1â€‰s/frame for AIF estimation and 5â€‰s/frame for PK analysis resulted in an absolute PE of less than 5% in the estimation of Ktrans and ve , and less than 11% in the estimation of vp . The nRMSE (mean Â± SD) for the dual temporal resolution image reconstruction and data-driven AIF was 0.16â€‰Â±â€‰0.04 compared with 0.27â€‰Â±â€‰0.10 (pÂ <â€‰0.001) with 1â€‰s/frame using population-averaged AIF, and 0.23â€‰Â±â€‰0.07 with 5â€‰s/frame using population-averaged AIF (pÂ <â€‰0.001). We conclude that DCE-MRI data acquired and reconstructed with the GRASP technique at dual temporal resolution can successfully be applied to jointly estimate the AIF and PK parameters from a single acquisition resulting in data-driven AIFs and voxelwise PK parametric maps.
MR SIGnature MAtching (MRSIGMA) with retrospective self-evaluation for real-time volumetric motion imaging
Differential Poststroke Motor Recovery in an Arm Versus Hand Muscle in the Absence of Motor Evoked Potentials
Background. After stroke, recovery of movement in proximal and distal upper extremity (UE) muscles appears to follow different time courses, suggesting differences in their neural substrates. Objective. We sought to determine if presence or absence of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) differentially influences recovery of volitional contraction and strength in an arm muscle versus an intrinsic hand muscle. We also related MEP status to recovery of proximal and distal interjoint coordination and movement fractionation, as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Methods. In 45 subjects in the year following ischemic stroke, we tracked the relationship between corticospinal tract (CST) integrity and behavioral recovery in the biceps (BIC) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe CST integrity, indicated by MEPs, in BIC and FDI. We used electromyography, dynamometry, and UE FMA subscores to assess muscle-specific contraction, strength, and inter-joint coordination, respectively. Results. Presence of MEPs resulted in higher likelihood of muscle contraction, greater strength, and higher FMA scores. Without MEPs, BICs could more often volitionally contract, were less weak, and had steeper strength recovery curves than FDIs; in contrast, FMA recovery curves plateaued below normal levels for both the arm and hand. Conclusions. There are shared and separate substrates for paretic UE recovery. CST integrity is necessary for interjoint coordination in both segments and for overall recovery. In its absence, alternative pathways may assist recovery of volitional contraction and strength, particularly in BIC. These findings suggest that more targeted approaches might be needed to optimize UE recovery.
Reply: Further evidence for a non-cortical origin of mirror movements after stroke
Evidence for a subcortical origin of mirror movements after stroke: a longitudinal study
Following a stroke, mirror movements are unintended movements that appear in the non-paretic hand when the paretic hand voluntarily moves. Mirror movements have previously been linked to overactivation of sensorimotor areas in the non-lesioned hemisphere. In this study, we hypothesized that mirror movements might instead have a subcortical origin, and are the by-product of subcortical motor pathways upregulating their contributions to the paretic hand. To test this idea, we first characterized the time course of mirroring in 53 first-time stroke patients, and compared it to the time course of activities in sensorimotor areas of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres (measured using functional MRI). Mirroring in the non-paretic hand was exaggerated early after stroke (Week 2), but progressively diminished over the year with a time course that parallelled individuation deficits in the paretic hand. We found no evidence of cortical overactivation that could explain the time course changes in behaviour, contrary to the cortical model of mirroring. Consistent with a subcortical origin of mirroring, we predicted that subcortical contributions should broadly recruit fingers in the non-paretic hand, reflecting the limited capacity of subcortical pathways in providing individuated finger control. We therefore characterized finger recruitment patterns in the non-paretic hand during mirroring. During mirroring, non-paretic fingers were broadly recruited, with mirrored forces in homologous fingers being only slightly larger (1.76 times) than those in non-homologous fingers. Throughout recovery, the pattern of finger recruitment during mirroring for patients looked like a scaled version of the corresponding control mirroring pattern, suggesting that the system that is responsible for mirroring in controls is upregulated after stroke. Together, our results suggest that post-stroke mirror movements in the non-paretic hand, like enslaved movements in the paretic hand, are caused by the upregulation of a bilaterally organized subcortical system.
A Randomized Study of Patient Risk Perception for Incidental Renal Findings on Diagnostic Imaging Tests
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess differences in patient distress, risk perception, and treatment preferences for incidental renal findings with descriptive versus combined descriptive and numeric graphical risk information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized survey study was conducted for adult patients about to undergo outpatient imaging studies at a large urban academic institution. Two survey arms contained either descriptive or a combination of descriptive and numeric graphical risk information about three hypothetical incidental renal findings at CT: 2-cm (low risk) and 5-cm (high risk) renal tumors and a 2-cm (low risk) renal artery aneurysm. The main outcomes were patient distress, perceived risk (qualitative and quantitative), treatment preference, and valuation of lesion discovery. RESULTS: Of 374 patients, 299 participated (79.9% response rate). With inclusion of numeric and graphical, rather than only descriptive, risk information about disease progression for a 2-cm renal tumor, patients reported less worry (3.56 vs 4.12 on a 5-point scale; p < 0.001) and favored surgical consultation less often (29.3% vs 46.9%; p = 0.003). The proportion choosing surgical consultation for the 2-cm renal tumor decreased to a similar level as for the renal artery aneurysm with numeric risk information (29.3% [95% CI, 21.7-36.8%] and 27.9% [95% CI, 20.5-35.3%], respectively). Patients overestimated the absolute risk of adverse events regardless of risk information type, but significantly more so when given descriptive information only, and valued the discovery of lesions regardless of risk information type (range, 4.41-4.81 on a 5-point scale). CONCLUSION: Numeric graphical risk communication for patients about incidental renal lesions may facilitate accurate risk comprehension and support patients in informed decision making.
Separable systems for recovery of finger strength and control after stroke
Impaired hand function after stroke is a major cause of long-term disability. We developed a novel paradigm that quantifies two critical aspects of hand function, strength, and independent control of fingers (individuation), and also removes any obligatory dependence between them. Hand recovery was tracked in 54 patients with hemiparesis over the first year after stroke. Most recovery of strength and individuation occurred within the first 3 mo. A novel time-invariant recovery function was identified: recovery of strength and individuation were tightly correlated up to a strength level of ~60% of estimated premorbid strength; beyond this threshold, strength improvement was not accompanied by further improvement in individuation. Any additional improvement in individuation was attributable instead to a second process that superimposed on the recovery function. We conclude that two separate systems are responsible for poststroke hand recovery: one contributes almost all of strength and some individuation; the other contributes additional individuation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We tracked recovery of the hand over a 1-yr period after stroke in a large cohort of patients, using a novel paradigm that enabled independent measurement of finger strength and control. Most recovery of strength and control occurs in the first 3 mo after stroke. We found that two separable systems are responsible for motor recovery of hand: one contributes strength and some dexterity, whereas a second contributes additional dexterity.
A Short and Distinct Time Window for Recovery of Arm Motor Control Early After Stroke Revealed With a Global Measure of Trajectory Kinematics
BACKGROUND:Studies demonstrate that most arm motor recovery occurs within three months after stroke, when measured with standard clinical scales. Improvements on these measures, however, reflect a combination of recovery in motor control, increases in strength, and acquisition of compensatory strategies. OBJECTIVE:To isolate and characterize the time course of recovery of arm motor control over the first year poststroke. METHODS:Longitudinal study of 18 participants with acute ischemic stroke. Motor control was evaluated using a global kinematic measure derived from a 2-dimensional reaching task designed to minimize the need for antigravity strength and prevent compensation. Arm impairment was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE), activity limitation with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and strength with biceps dynamometry. Assessments were conducted at: 1.5, 5, 14, 27, and 54 weeks poststroke. RESULTS:Motor control in the paretic arm improved up to week 5, with no further improvement beyond this time point. In contrast, improvements in the FMA-UE, ARAT, and biceps dynamometry continued beyond 5 weeks, with a similar magnitude of improvement between weeks 5 and 54 as the one observed between weeks 1.5 and 5. CONCLUSIONS:Recovery after stroke plateaued much earlier for arm motor control, isolated with a global kinematic measure, compared to motor function assessed with clinical scales. This dissociation between the time courses of kinematic and clinical measures of recovery may be due to the contribution of strength improvement to the latter. Novel interventions, focused on the first month poststroke, will be required to exploit the narrower window of spontaneous recovery for motor control.
In vivo quantification of demyelination and recovery using compartment-specific diffusion MRI metrics validated by electron microscopy
There is a need for accurate quantitative non-invasive biomarkers to monitor myelin pathology in vivo and distinguish myelin changes from other pathological features including inflammation and axonal loss. Conventional MRI metrics such as T2, magnetization transfer ratio and radial diffusivity have proven sensitivity but not specificity. In highly coherent white matter bundles, compartment-specific white matter tract integrity (WMTI) metrics can be directly derived from the diffusion and kurtosis tensors: axonal water fraction, intra-axonal diffusivity, and extra-axonal radial and axial diffusivities. We evaluate the potential of WMTI to quantify demyelination by monitoring the effects of both acute (6weeks) and chronic (12weeks) cuprizone intoxication and subsequent recovery in the mouse corpus callosum, and compare its performance with that of conventional metrics (T2, magnetization transfer, and DTI parameters). The changes observed in vivo correlated with those obtained from quantitative electron microscopy image analysis. A 6-week intoxication produced a significant decrease in axonal water fraction (p<0.001), with only mild changes in extra-axonal radial diffusivity, consistent with patchy demyelination, while a 12-week intoxication caused a more marked decrease in extra-axonal radial diffusivity (p=0.0135), consistent with more severe demyelination and clearance of the extra-axonal space. Results thus revealed increased specificity of the axonal water fraction and extra-axonal radial diffusivity parameters to different degrees and patterns of demyelination. The specificities of these parameters were corroborated by their respective correlations with microstructural features: the axonal water fraction correlated significantly with the electron microscopy derived total axonal water fraction (rho=0.66; p=0.0014) but not with the g-ratio, while the extra-axonal radial diffusivity correlated with the g-ratio (rho=0.48; p=0.0342) but not with the electron microscopy derived axonal water fraction. These parameters represent promising candidates as clinically feasible biomarkers of demyelination and remyelination in the white matter.