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Diagnostic Accuracy of Unenhanced Computed Tomography for Evaluation of Acute Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department

Shaish, Hiram; Ream, Justin; Huang, Chenchan; Troost, Jonathan; Gaur, Sonia; Chung, Ryan; Kim, Sooah; Patel, Hanisha; Newhouse, Jeffrey H; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; Davenport, Matthew S
IMPORTANCE:Intravenous (IV) contrast medium is sometimes withheld due to risk of complication or lack of availability in patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain. The risk from withholding contrast medium is understudied. OBJECTIVE:To determine the diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced abdominopelvic CT using contemporaneous contrast-enhanced CT as the reference standard in emergency department (ED) patients with acute abdominal pain. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This was an institutional review board-approved, multicenter retrospective diagnostic accuracy study of 201 consecutive adult ED patients who underwent dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT for the evaluation of acute abdominal pain from April 1, 2017, through April 22, 2017. Three blinded radiologists interpreted these scans to establish the reference standard by majority rule. IV and oral contrast media were then digitally subtracted using dual-energy techniques. Six different blinded radiologists from 3 institutions (3 specialist faculty and 3 residents) interpreted the resulting unenhanced CT examinations. Participants included a consecutive sample of ED patients with abdominal pain who underwent dual-energy CT. EXPOSURE:Contrast-enhanced and virtual unenhanced CT derived from dual-energy CT. MAIN OUTCOME:Diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced CT for primary (ie, principal cause[s] of pain) and actionable secondary (ie, incidental findings requiring management) diagnoses. The Gwet interrater agreement coefficient was calculated. RESULTS:There were 201 included patients (female, 108; male, 93) with a mean age of 50.1 (SD, 20.9) years and mean BMI of 25.5 (SD, 5.4). Overall accuracy of unenhanced CT was 70% (faculty, 68% to 74%; residents, 69% to 70%). Faculty had higher accuracy than residents for primary diagnoses (82% vs 76%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.26-2.67; P = .002) but lower accuracy for actionable secondary diagnoses (87% vs 90%; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93; P < .001). This was because faculty made fewer false-negative primary diagnoses (38% vs 62%; OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13-0.41; P < .001) but more false-positive actionable secondary diagnoses (63% vs 37%; OR, 2.11, 95% CI, 1.26-3.54; P = .01). False-negative (19%) and false-positive (14%) results were common. Interrater agreement for overall accuracy was moderate (Gwet agreement coefficient, 0.58). CONCLUSION:Unenhanced CT was approximately 30% less accurate than contrast-enhanced CT for evaluating abdominal pain in the ED. This should be balanced with the risk of administering contrast material to patients with risk factors for kidney injury or hypersensitivity reaction.
PMID: 37133836
ISSN: 2168-6262
CID: 5536502

Contrast-enhanced MR enterography as a stand-alone tool to evaluate Crohn's disease in a paediatric population

Spieler, B; Hindman, N; Levy, J; Zabrieski, K; Sahlein, D; Seuss, C; Kim, S
AIM: To assess the performance of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone in the evaluation of Crohn's disease in comparison to all magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) imaging sequences together in an attempt to suggest limitation of the number of overall unenhanced sequences need for the follow-up evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five paediatric patients (mean age 14.1 +/- 3.7 years, male = 12, female = 13) underwent MRE at 1.5 T for evaluation of Crohn's disease. Two radiologists reviewed only contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in consensus on the first session. Whole images including unenhanced (steady-state free precession, single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE), fat-suppressed T2-weighted) and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were reviewed in consensus during the second session with a 1 month interval, which was used as a reference standard. The readers evaluated the presence or absence of disease in 10 bowel segments in each patient. For the abnormal bowel segments, the readers then evaluated for active versus inactive disease and for the presence or absence of abscess. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy were calculated for detecting active inflammation. RESULTS: There were 53/250 bowel segments with active inflammation using the reference standard imaging method. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing active inflammation using contrast-enhanced images alone were 83.3%, 86.9%, and 84.9%. In five of the false-positive cases of detecting abscess from contrast-enhanced imaging alone, absence of abscesses was confirmed on the non-fat-suppressed HASTE images. CONCLUSION: The number of MRE sequences in paediatric Crohn's patients can be decreased while maintaining diagnostic accuracy using contrast-enhanced T1 and non-fat-suppressed HASTE images.
PMID: 23796211
ISSN: 0009-9260
CID: 519432

Time-resolved lower extremity MRA with temporal interpolation and stochastic spiral trajectories: Preliminary clinical experience

Lim, Ruth P; Jacob, Jason S; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Kim, Danny C; Huffman, Steven D; Kim, Sooah; Babb, James S; Laub, Gerhard; Adelman, Mark A; Lee, Vivian S
PURPOSE:: To assess added value of a new time-resolved technique with temporal interpolation and stochastic spiral trajectory through k-space and parallel imaging (TR-MRA) to conventional bolus chase MRA (BC-MRA) for infragenual peripheral artery evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of peripheral arterial disease patients was performed. Infragenual TR-MRA and BC-MRA were performed in 26 patients over four months. Two readers individually assessed image quality, diagnostic confidence, and stenosis severity and length in 13 defined below knee segments, first with BC-MRA alone, and then with a combined BC-MRA and TR-MRA reading (BC+TR-MRA). Perceived contribution of TR-MRA was rated by each reader. The reference standard was a consensus reading of both sequences. Catheter angiographic (CA) correlation was available in 6 patients. RESULTS:: A total of 646 infragenual segments in 51 extremities were evaluated. Image quality and diagnostic confidence were superior for BC+TR-MRA compared with BC-MRA alone (P < 0.001). Adding TR-MRA improved sensitivity (85.7% versus 80.7%; P < 0.05) and diagnostic accuracy (88.1% versus 85.4%; P < 0.05) for hemodynamically significant stenosis. Venous contamination (0% versus 13.1% segments) and motion (0.9% versus 8.0%) were decreased for BC+TR-MRA versus BC-MRA alone, P < 0.01. For BC+TR-MRA, TR-MRA was rated more useful than BC-MRA in 30/51 legs (58.8%). TR-MRA identified retrograde flow in 5 segments. Where available, there was high concordance between CA and BC+TR-MRA (91.6%) for stenosis. CONCLUSION:: Adding TR-MRA with temporal interpolation and stochastic spiral trajectories to bolus chase MRA improves image quality, diagnostic confidence and accuracy. It provides hemodynamic information and minimizes venous contamination and patient motion. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:663-672. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc
PMID: 20187210
ISSN: 1053-1807
CID: 107781

Overlapping ablation using a coaxial radiofrequency electrode and multiple cannulae system: experimental study in ex-vivo bovine liver

Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K; Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jongmee; Kim, Seung Kwon; Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Seong Hyun
OBJECTIVE: To assess the sizes and configurations of thermal zones after overlapping ablations using a coaxial radiofrequency (RF) electrode and multiple cannulae in ex-vivo bovine liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For ablation procedures, a coaxial RF electrode and introducer set was used. Employing real-time ultrasound guidance and overlapping techniques in explanted, fresh bovine liver, we created five kinds of thermal zones with one (n=10), two (n=8), four (n=3), and six ablation spheres (n=3). Following ablation, MR images were obtained and the dimensions of all thermal zones were measured on the longitudinal or transverse section of specimens. The shape of the composite ablation zones was evaluated using three-dimensional MR image reconstruction. RESULTS: At gross pathologic examination of ten single-ablation zones (spheres), the long-axis (transverse) and short-axis lengths of zones ranged from 3.7 to 4.4 (mean, 4.1) cm and from 3.5 to 4.0 (mean, 3.7) cm, respectively. The long-axis (transverse) and short-axis lengths of double-ablation zones (cylinders) with 23% overlap ranged from 7.0 to 7.7 (mean, 7.3) cm and from 3.0 to 3.9 (mean, 3.5) cm, respectively; those with 58% overlap ranged from 6.0 to 6.4 (mean, 6.2) cm and from 3.8 to 4.6 (mean, 4.3) cm, respectively. The long-axis (diagonal) and short-axis lengths on a transverse section of four-ablation zones (cakes) ranged from 8.5 to 9.7 (mean, 9.1) cm and from 3.0 to 4.1 (mean, 3.7) cm, respectively. Gross pathologic examination of three composite six-ablation zones (spheres) showed that the long-axis (diagonal) and short-axis lengths of zones ranged from 9.0 to 9.9 (mean, 9.4) cm and from 6.8 to 7.5 (mean, 7.2) cm, respectively. T2-weighted MR images depicted low-signal thermal zones containing multiple curvilinear and spotty regions of hyperintensity. CONCLUSION: Using a coaxial RF electrode and multiple cannulae, together with ultrasound guidance and precise overlapping ablation techniques, we successfully created predictable thermal zones in ex-vivo bovine liver
PMID: 12845307
ISSN: 1229-6929
CID: 70182