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Longitudinal study of immunity to SARS-CoV2 in ocrelizumab-treated MS patients up to 2 years after COVID-19 vaccination

Kister, Ilya; Curtin, Ryan; Piquet, Amanda L; Borko, Tyler; Pei, Jinglan; Banbury, Barbara L; Bacon, Tamar E; Kim, Angie; Tuen, Michael; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Selva, Sean; Samanovic, Marie I; Mulligan, Mark J; Patskovsky, Yury; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:(1) To plot the trajectory of humoral and cellular immune responses to the primary (two-dose) COVID-19 mRNA series and the third/booster dose in B-cell-depleted multiple sclerosis (MS) patients up to 2 years post-vaccination; (2) to identify predictors of immune responses to vaccination; and (3) to assess the impact of intercurrent COVID-19 infections on SARS CoV-2-specific immunity. METHODS:Sixty ocrelizumab-treated MS patients were enrolled from NYU (New York) and University of Colorado (Anschutz) MS Centers. Samples were collected pre-vaccination, and then 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-primary series, and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-booster. Binding anti-Spike antibody responses were assessed with multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MBI) and electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys®, Roche Diagnostics), and neutralizing antibody responses with live-virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay. Spike-specific cellular responses were assessed with IFNγ/IL-2 ELISpot (Invitrogen) and, in a subset, by sequencing complementarity determining regions (CDR)-3 within T-cell receptors (Adaptive Biotechnologies). A linear mixed-effect model was used to compare antibody and cytokine levels across time points. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of immune responses. RESULTS:The primary vaccination induced an 11- to 208-fold increase in binding and neutralizing antibody levels and a 3- to 4-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2 responses, followed by a modest decline in antibody but not cytokine responses. Booster dose induced a further 3- to 5-fold increase in binding antibodies and 4- to 5-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2, which were maintained for up to 1 year. Infections had a variable impact on immunity. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Humoral and cellular benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in B-cell-depleted MS patients were sustained for up to 2 years when booster doses were administered.
PMID: 38713096
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5652462

Relapsing White Matter Disease and Subclinical Optic Neuropathy: From the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Case Conference Proceedings

O'Neill, Kimberly A; Dugue, Andrew; Abreu, Nicolas J; Balcer, Laura J; Branche, Marc; Galetta, Steven; Graves, Jennifer; Kister, Ilya; Magro, Cynthia; Miller, Claire; Newsome, Scott D; Pappas, John; Rucker, Janet; Steigerwald, Connolly; William, Christopher M; Zamvil, Scott S; Grossman, Scott N; Krupp, Lauren B
A 16-year-old adolescent boy presented with recurrent episodes of weakness and numbness. Brain MRI demonstrated subcortical, juxtacortical, and periventricular white matter T2 hyperintensities with gadolinium enhancement. CSF was positive for oligoclonal bands that were not present in serum. Despite treatment with steroids, IV immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis, and rituximab, he continued to have episodes of weakness and numbness and new areas of T2 hyperintensity on imaging. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed a subclinical optic neuropathy with predominant involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Genetic evaluation and brain biopsy led to an unexpected diagnosis.
PMID: 38181317
ISSN: 2332-7812
CID: 5628442

Longitudinal study of immunity to SARS-CoV2 in ocrelizumab-treated MS patients up to 2 years after COVID-19 vaccination

Kister, Ilya; Curtin, Ryan; Piquet, Amanda L.; Borko, Tyler; Pei, Jinglan; Banbury, Barbara L.; Bacon, Tamar E.; Kim, Angie; Tuen, Michael; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Selva, Sean; Samanovic, Marie I.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Patskovsky, Yury; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C.; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J.
Objectives: (1) To plot the trajectory of humoral and cellular immune responses to the primary (two-dose) COVID-19 mRNA series and the third/booster dose in B-cell-depleted multiple sclerosis (MS) patients up to 2 years post-vaccination; (2) to identify predictors of immune responses to vaccination; and (3) to assess the impact of intercurrent COVID-19 infections on SARS CoV-2-specific immunity. Methods: Sixty ocrelizumab-treated MS patients were enrolled from NYU (New York) and University of Colorado (Anschutz) MS Centers. Samples were collected pre-vaccination, and then 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-primary series, and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-booster. Binding anti-Spike antibody responses were assessed with multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MBI) and electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys®, Roche Diagnostics), and neutralizing antibody responses with live-virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay. Spike-specific cellular responses were assessed with IFNγ/IL-2 ELISpot (Invitrogen) and, in a subset, by sequencing complementarity determining regions (CDR)-3 within T-cell receptors (Adaptive Biotechnologies). A linear mixed-effect model was used to compare antibody and cytokine levels across time points. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of immune responses. Results: The primary vaccination induced an 11- to 208-fold increase in binding and neutralizing antibody levels and a 3- to 4-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2 responses, followed by a modest decline in antibody but not cytokine responses. Booster dose induced a further 3- to 5-fold increase in binding antibodies and 4- to 5-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2, which were maintained for up to 1 year. Infections had a variable impact on immunity. Interpretation: Humoral and cellular benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in B-cell-depleted MS patients were sustained for up to 2 years when booster doses were administered.
SCOPUS:85192269979
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5661482

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) serves as an objective correlate of distress and symptom burden in multiple sclerosis

Pilloni, Giuseppina; Best, Pamela; Kister, Ilya; Charvet, Leigh
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is frequently seen in people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Heart rate variability (HRV) is an easy and objective index for evaluating ANS functioning, and it has been previously used to explore the association between ANS and the experience of symptom burden in other chronic diseases. Given ANS functioning can be influenced by physical and psychological factors, this study investigated whether emotional distress and/or the presence of ANS dysfunction is associated with symptom severity in people living with MS. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Participants with MS and healthy controls (HC) with no history of cardiac conditions were recruited to self-collect HR data sampled from a chest strap HR monitor (PolarH10). Short-term HR signal was collected for five minutes, and time and frequency HRV analyses were performed and compared between groups. HRV values were then compared to self-reported distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and MS participants' self-reported measures of symptom burden (SymptoMScreen). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 0.007). A significant mediation effect was also observed, with emotional distress fully mediating the association between HRV and symptom burden. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:These findings suggest the potential for ANS dysfunction, as measured by HRV (i.e., lower value of HF power), to be utilized as an objective marker of symptom burden in people living with MS. Moreover, it is apparent that the relationship between HRV and symptom burden is mediated by emotional distress.
PMCID:10958478
PMID: 38525015
ISSN: 2174-0852
CID: 5644422

African American patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have higher proportions of CD19+ and CD20+ B-cell lineage cells in their cerebrospinal fluid than White MS patients

Xue, Haotian; Arbini, Arnaldo A.; Melton, Hunter J.; Kister, Ilya
ORIGINAL:0017197
ISSN: 2211-0348
CID: 5652472

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Pre-existing Neurologic Autoimmune Disorders

Aoun, Raissa; Gratch, Daniel; Kaminetzky, David; Kister, Ilya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for oncologic indications is associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases are at increased risk of irAEs and have largely been excluded from clinical trials of ICIs. Therefore, there is limited data on the safety of safety of ICIs in patients with pre-existing neurologic autoimmune diseases (nAIDs) such as myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis. This review aims to synthesize the literature on the post-marketing experience with ICI in patients with pre-existing nAID and to discuss possible strategies for mitigating the risk of post-ICI nAID relapses. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Patients with pre-existing myasthenia gravis (MG), myositis, and paraneoplastic encephalitis appear highly susceptible to neurologic relapses of their underlying neurologic disorder following ICI initiation; these relapses can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the risk and severity of MS relapses following ICI appears to be relatively lower compared to MG. Preliminary evidence suggests that older MS patients with no recent focal neuroinflammatory activity may be safely treated with ICI. Among the several case reports of ICI in patients with a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), neurologic worsening was only recorded in one patient who was in the acute phase of GBS at the time of ICI start. Initiating an ICI in a patient with pre-existing nAID involves a complex risk-benefit discussion between the patient, their oncologist, and neurologist. Relevant issues to consider before ICI include the choice of disease-modifying therapy for nAID (if any) and strategies for promptly identifying and managing nAID relapses should they occur. Currently, the literature consists mainly of case reports and case series, subject to publication bias. Prospective studies of ICI in patients with nAID are needed to improve the level of evidence.
PMID: 37870664
ISSN: 1534-6293
CID: 5611602

African American patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have higher proportions of CD19+ and CD20+ B-cell lineage cells in their cerebrospinal fluid than White MS patients

Xue, Haotian; Arbini, Arnaldo A; Melton, Hunter J; Kister, Ilya
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To compare proportions of B-cell lineage CD19+ and CD20+ cells in CSF of African-American (AA) and White (W) patients with MS. BACKGROUND:AA MS patients are more likely to have oligoclonal bands in CSF, higher IgG index in CSF, and higher circulating plasmablasts in blood than W MS patients. It is unknown whether the proportion of B-cells in CSF differs between AA and W patients in MS. METHODS:Demographics, disease-related information, treatment history were retrospectively collected on patients with MS who self-identified as AA or W and underwent flow cytometry of CSF during diagnostic work-up. Proportion of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and plasma cells were analyzed with flow cytometry. RESULTS:20 AA and 56 W MS patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The groups had similar demographics, CSF cell counts, protein and glucose CSF concentrations, and oligoclonal band number. IgG index was higher in AA compared to W (1.08 vs. 0.85, p = 0.031). AA had higher proportions of CD19+ (5.46 % AA vs. 2.26 % W, p = 0.006) and CD20+ (4.64 % AA vs. 1.91 % W, p = 0.004) cells but did not significantly differ in proportion of CD4+, CD8+, CD38+ bright B-cells, NK cells and monocytes. CONCLUSIONS:B-cells are overrepresented in the CSF of African American patients with MS relative to Whites.
PMID: 37832255
ISSN: 2211-0356
CID: 5604272

No Increase in Symptoms Toward the End of the Ocrelizumab Infusion Cycle in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Symptom Burden on Ocrelizumab: A Longitudinal Study (SymBOLS)

Kister, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun; Douglas, Elizabeth A.; Bacon, Tamar E.; O'shea, Isabella L.; Parrotta, Erica H.; Bouley, Andrew; Lathi, Ellen; Katz, Joshua
Background and Objectives: Some patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving ocrelizumab (OCR) report worsening symptoms toward the end of the 6-month infusion cycle ('wearing off'). The objective of our study was to comprehensively assess changes in symptom burden across 2 consecutive OCR infusion cycles. Methods: SYMptom Burden on Ocrelizumab, a Longitudinal Study (SymBOLS; NCT04855617) was an investigator-initiated, 2-center study of patients with MS starting or receiving OCR. Patients' symptoms were assessed with NeuroQoL short forms, SymptoMScreen, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire at the start-cycle, mid-cycle, and end-cycle time points in each of the 2 infusion cycles. Symptom scores at the 3 time points within each cycle were compared with repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman rank-sum test for non-normal variables. The proportions of patients with a meaningful symptomatic change from the start to the end of each infusion cycle were calculated, and patients whose symptoms improved, worsened, and stayed the same from the start to the end of the cycle were compared with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: One hundred three patients with MS provided longitudinal data for analyses (mean age [SD]: 46.7 [12.2] years, 68% female, 33% non-White, disease duration: 15.5 [5] years, 41% with the Extended Disability Status Scale score >3). On a group level, NeuroQoL and SymptoMScreen scores mostly remained stable or even improved slightly toward the end of each cycle. On an individual level, symptoms remained unchanged across either cycle for most patients, and meaningful symptom worsening from the start to the end of the cycle was no more common than improvement. Meaningful change in symptoms in both cycles was very rare and generally in the direction of improvement toward the end cycle. Despite the lack of evidence for symptom worsening with a longer time from infusion, 54% of patients endorsed feeling of "wearing off"at least sometimes, most commonly as an increase in fatigue. Discussion Our prospective study failed to uncover evidence for the worsening of symptoms with a longer time from OCR infusion. These findings cast doubt on the existence of wearing off as a physiologic phenomenon in OCR-treated patients with MS. The perception of wearing off is likely the result of natural fluctuations in MS symptoms and attribution bias.
SCOPUS:85191557248
ISSN: 2163-0402
CID: 5662302

No Increase in Symptoms Toward the End of the Ocrelizumab Infusion Cycle in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Symptom Burden on Ocrelizumab: A Longitudinal Study (SymBOLS)

Kister, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun; Douglas, Elizabeth A; Bacon, Tamar E; O'Shea, Isabella L; Parrotta, Erica H; Bouley, Andrew; Lathi, Ellen; Katz, Joshua
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Some patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving ocrelizumab (OCR) report worsening symptoms toward the end of the 6-month infusion cycle ('wearing off'). The objective of our study was to comprehensively assess changes in symptom burden across 2 consecutive OCR infusion cycles. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:SYMptom Burden on Ocrelizumab, a Longitudinal Study (SymBOLS; NCT04855617) was an investigator-initiated, 2-center study of patients with MS starting or receiving OCR. Patients' symptoms were assessed with NeuroQoL short forms, SymptoMScreen, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire at the start-cycle, mid-cycle, and end-cycle time points in each of the 2 infusion cycles. Symptom scores at the 3 time points within each cycle were compared with repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman rank-sum test for non-normal variables. The proportions of patients with a meaningful symptomatic change from the start to the end of each infusion cycle were calculated, and patients whose symptoms improved, worsened, and stayed the same from the start to the end of the cycle were compared with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:One hundred three patients with MS provided longitudinal data for analyses (mean age [SD]: 46.7 [12.2] years, 68% female, 33% non-White, disease duration: 15.5 [5] years, 41% with the Extended Disability Status Scale score >3). On a group level, NeuroQoL and SymptoMScreen scores mostly remained stable or even improved slightly toward the end of each cycle. On an individual level, symptoms remained unchanged across either cycle for most patients, and meaningful symptom worsening from the start to the end of the cycle was no more common than improvement. Meaningful change in symptoms in both cycles was very rare and generally in the direction of improvement toward the end cycle. Despite the lack of evidence for symptom worsening with a longer time from infusion, 54% of patients endorsed feeling of "wearing off" at least sometimes, most commonly as an increase in fatigue. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Our prospective study failed to uncover evidence for the worsening of symptoms with a longer time from OCR infusion. These findings cast doubt on the existence of wearing off as a physiologic phenomenon in OCR-treated patients with MS. The perception of wearing off is likely the result of natural fluctuations in MS symptoms and attribution bias.
PMCID:10479935
PMID: 37674871
ISSN: 2163-0402
CID: 5602722

Cramps, Spasms, and Spasticity

Arena, Vito; Kister, Ilya
(Website)
CID: 5569222