A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in New York City
OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among COVID-19 patients, we prospectively followed hospitalized SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, multi-center, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the NYC metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS:Of 4,491 COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were: toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis, or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all P<0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA-scores, intubation, past history, medical complications, medications and comfort-care-status, COVID-19 patients with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, P<0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge. RESULTS:Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web
OBJECTIVE:The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web. METHODS:A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 Â± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 Â± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Associated with COVID-19
Despite the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being more frequently related to acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries, thromboembolic events have been increasingly reported. We report a unique series of young patients with COVID-19 presenting with cerebral venous system thrombosis. Three patients younger than 41â€‰years of age with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection had neurologic findings related to cerebral venous thrombosis. They were admitted during the short period of 10 days between March and April 2020 and were managed in an academic institution in a large city. One patient had thrombosis in both the superficial and deep systems; another had involvement of the straight sinus, vein of Galen, and internal cerebral veins; and a third patient had thrombosis of the deep medullary veins. Two patients presented with hemorrhagic venous infarcts. The median time from COVID-19 symptoms to a thrombotic event was 7 days (range, 2-7â€‰days). One patient was diagnosed with new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis, and another one used oral contraceptive pills. Two patients were managed with both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; one was treated with lopinavir-ritonavir. All patients had a fatal outcome. Severe and potentially fatal deep cerebral thrombosis may complicate the initial clinical presentation of COVID-19. We urge awareness of this atypical manifestation.
Factors Associated With DNR Status After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
Background/UNASSIGNED:We explored factors associated with admission and discharge code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We extracted data from patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 2013, and March 1, 2016 with nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage who had a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 4 to 6. We reviewed data based on admission and discharge code status. Results/UNASSIGNED:.06). There was no significant difference between discharge code status and sex, age, marital status, premorbid mRS, discharge GCS, or bleed severity. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Limitation of code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage appears to be associated with older age, white race, worse APACHE II score, and active cancer. The role of palliative care after intracranial hemorrhage and the racial disparity in limitation and de-escalation of treatment deserves further exploration.
SARS2-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current worldwide pandemic, there is mounting evidence that patients affected by the illness may develop clinically significant coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications including ischemic stroke. However, there is limited data on the clinical characteristics, stroke mechanism, and outcomes of patients who have a stroke and COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and April 19, 2020, within a major health system in New York, the current global epicenter of the pandemic. We compared the clinical characteristics of stroke patients with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19 to stroke patients without COVID-19 (contemporary controls). In addition, we compared patients to a historical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke discharged from our hospital system between March 15, 2019, and April 15, 2019 (historical controls). RESULTS:<0.001). When compared with contemporary controls, COVID-19 positive patients had higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and higher peak D-dimer levels. When compared with historical controls, COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to be younger men with elevated troponin, higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients with COVID-19 and stroke had significantly higher mortality than historical and contemporary controls. CONCLUSIONS:We observed a low rate of imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Most strokes were cryptogenic, possibly related to an acquired hypercoagulability, and mortality was increased. Studies are needed to determine the utility of therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke and other thrombotic event prevention in patients with COVID-19.
Teaching NeuroImages: Hippocampal sclerosis in cerebral malaria
Spinal cord infarct presenting as brown-sequard syndrome [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: To describe a spinal cord infarct masquerading as brown-sequard syndrome. Background: Spinal cord infarcts have historically been difficult to diagnose both clinically and radio-graphically. For appropriate treatment, infarcts must be differentiated early from infectious or demyelinating etiologies. Improved MRI resolution and pattern recognition can separate these entities, even in atypical cases. Design/Methods: Clinical case, diagnostics, imaging and literature review. Results: A 64-year-old woman with history of uncontrolled type II diabetes presented with urinary retention, left lower extremity (LLE) pain and progressive LLE weakness over 10 hours. Upon arrival, exam showed isolated LLE plegia, decreased pain and temperature sensation in the right lower extremity, and a T5 sensory level. Reflexes were symmetric except for a left Babinski sign. Spinal cord MRI revealed asymmetric abnormal signal in the upper thoracic cord with minimal edema and no enhancement. Diffusion sequencing was consistent with infarct. CT angiogram of the neck showed no dissection or large-vessel disease. Within 36 hours of hospitalization patient developed acute hypoxemia and was found to have bilateral saddle pulmonary emboli leading to cardiac arrest. She was resuscitated, received thrombolytics and underwent surgical thrombectomy. It was theorized that brief immobility on background of hypercoagulable state caused a large embolic burden. Neurologic exam remained stable despite her complicated course. She was treated with high-dose statin and anticoagulation. Hypercoagulability panel, including genetic and antiphospholipid antibody testing, was negative. Conclusions: Clinical symptoms of sub-acute LLE plegia and brown-sequard-like sensory disturbance initially forced us to consider infectious and inflammatory etiologies. Although spinal anatomy is notoriously variable, hemi-cord localization was still difficult to explain with an anterior spinal artery infarct. Lack of enhancement, minimal expansion and diffusion restriction on MRI are useful in differentiating infarct from demyelination. With this knowledge and patient's propensity to clot, we felt confident calling this an atypical spinal cord infarct explained by unique collateral circulation
Whistling Seizures : A Unique Case Report Of A Rare Automatism
Objetive: We report a unique case of a 60-year-old man with ictal whistling after being injured in a serious motorcycle accident. Methods: Clinical presentation, neurologic examination, neuroimaging, video-EEG (electroencephalogram) analysis, and therapeutic options were defined. A review of relevant literature was also performed. Case summary: Our patient experienced frequent complex partial seizures after the head trauma. His neurologic examination was nonfocal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not reveal any lesion. Video-EEG captured 2 stereotyped complex partial seizures with a rare ictal vocalization, ictal whistling. The ictal onset showed poorly sustained diffuse bitemporal theta-delta rhythms, which made it difficult to determine lateralization from the scalp EEG but favored possible right hemispheric onsets. Conclusions: Ictal vocalizations are common in temporal lobe epilepsy, though ictal whistling has been reported in both frontal and temporal lobe cases. The very few reported cases show a strong male predominance. Clear lateralization at ictal onset was not possible in our patient, but peri-ictal and interictal discharges suggested possible right temporal lobe focus.
Nonoperative treatment for anterior cruciate ligament injury in recreational alpine skiers
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to test whether low-grade Lachman test (i.e. Grade 0-1+) and a negative pivot shift at 6-12Â weeks post-ACL rupture in recreational alpine skiers can be used to predict good function and normal knee laxity in nonoperated patients at minimum 2Â years after the injury. METHODS:Office registry was used to identify 63 recreational alpine skiers treated by the senior author within 6Â weeks of a first-time ACL injury between 2003 and 2008. Of these, 34 had early ACL reconstruction but 29 patients were observed and re-evaluated. Office charts and MRI were reviewed. Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: ACL rupture documented on MRI after the injury, and minimum 2-year follow-up. Exclusion criterion was contralateral knee ligament injury. Of the 29 patients treated nonoperatively, 17 had low-grade Lachman and negative pivot shift tests within 6-12Â weeks after the injury and were recommended to continue follow-up without surgery. Of these 17 patients, 6 were lost to follow up, but 11 patients were recalled and evaluated at more than 2Â years after the injury. They completed Marx and Tegner activity level and IKDC subjective scores, physical examination of the knee and KT-1000 anterior laxity assessment. RESULTS:Median age at injury was 43Â years (range 29-58). Median follow-up was 42Â months (range 30-68). Mean IKDC subjective score at latest follow-up was 91.6Â Â±Â 6.7. Median Tegner score was 6 (range 6-9) before the injury and 6 (range 4-6) at latest follow-up (pÂ =Â n.s). Median Marx score was 6 (range 0-16) before the injury and 4 (range 0-12) at latest follow-up (pÂ =Â 0.03). Ten patients had Lachman Grade 0-1+, and one had Lachman Grade 2+ at latest follow-up. KT-1000 showed mean side-to-side difference of 0.8Â Â±Â 1.6Â mm, and less than 3Â mm difference in the 10 patients with Lachman Grade 0-1+. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Recreational alpine skiers who sustain ACL injury should be re-evaluated at 6-12Â weeks after the injury rather than being operated acutely. If they have negative Lachman and pivot shift tests at that point, they can be treated without surgery since good outcome and normal knee anterior laxity at more than 2Â years after the injury is expected. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Case series, Level IV.