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Reading Aloud with Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Unit-Based Program to Enhance Language Enrichment and Support Early Foundational Relationships

Erdei, Carmina; Klass, Perri; Inder, Terrie E
OBJECTIVE: Early meaningful auditory experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) enhance language outcomes and promote cognitive and social-emotional development. METHODS: This is a descriptive report sharing our level III NICU experience of building a reading-aloud enrichment program with the goals of enhancing infant neurodevelopment and strengthening early parent-infant relationships. RESULTS: We propose a roadmap for program development, outline challenges and possible ways to mitigate them, and highlight opportunities for further research in this area. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:· Early auditory experiences enhance language, cognitive, and social-emotional development.. · High-risk infants experience an atypical neurosensory environment while receiving care in the NICU.. · Reading aloud in the NICU enhances language enrichment and supports early foundational relationships.. · We describe our center's experience with building a reading-aloud enrichment program in the NICU..
PMID: 34100273
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4906042

Effective Communication for Child Advocacy: Getting the Message out Beyond Clinic Walls

Klass, Perri; Heard-Garris, Nia; Navsaria, Dipesh
Clinicians who want to communicate child advocacy messages, stories, and arguments can draw on their clinical and scientific experience, but effective communication to wider--and nonmedical--audiences requires careful thought. We discuss choosing and honing the message, developing writing and speaking skills that fit both the exigencies of the chosen medium and format, including op-eds, essays, social media, public testimony, and speeches. We provide guidance on proposing articles, working with editors, shaping language and diction for a general audience, and drawing on clinical experiences while respecting confidentiality. all with the goal of effective communication, spoken and written, in the service of children and child advocacy.
PMID: 36402466
ISSN: 1557-8240
CID: 5371812

"The Sombre Aspect of the Entire Landscape" - Epidemiology and the Faroe Islands

Klass, Perri; Ratner, Adam J
PMID: 35333484
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 5200682

Maternal and Infant Mortality in Physicians' Families in 1922

Klass, Perri; Ratner, Adam J
PMID: 35229122
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5174282

"Now I know how to not repeat history": Teaching and Learning Through a Pandemic with the Medical Humanities

Adams, Kim; Deer, Patrick; Jordan, Trace; Klass, Perri
We reflect on our experience co-teaching a medical humanities elective, "Pandemics and Plagues," which was offered to undergraduates during the Spring 2021 semester, and discuss student reactions to studying epidemic disease from multidisciplinary medical humanities perspectives while living through the world Covid-19 pandemic. The course incorporated basic microbiology and epidemiology into discussions of how epidemics from the Black Death to HIV/AIDS have been portrayed in history, literature, art, music, and journalism. Students self-assessed their learning gains and offered their insights using the SALG (Student Assessment of their Learning Gains), describing how the course enhanced their understanding of the current pandemic. In class discussions and written assignments, students paid particular attention to issues of social justice, political context, and connections between past pandemics and Covid-19. Student responses indicate enhanced understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of epidemics and also increased appreciation of the insights to be gained from the medical humanities. We discuss co-teaching the class during a real-time, twenty-four-hour-news-cycle pandemic, and the ways in which that experience underlines the value of a "critical medical humanities" approach for undergraduates.
PMID: 34750698
ISSN: 1573-3645
CID: 5050332

Integrating Health Care Strategies to Prevent Poverty-Related Disparities in Development and Growth: Addressing Core Outcomes of Early Childhood

Gross, Rachel S; Messito, Mary Jo; Klass, Perri; Canfield, Caitlin F; Yin, H Shonna; Morris, Pamela A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dreyer, Benard P; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty-related disparities appear early in life in cognitive, language, and social-emotional development, and in growth, especially obesity, and have long-term consequences across the life course. It is essential to develop effective strategies to promote healthy behaviors in pregnancy and the early years of parenthood that can mitigate disparities. Primary preventive interventions within the pediatric primary care setting offer universal access, high engagement, and population-level impact at low cost. While many families in poverty or with low income would benefit from preventive services related to both development and growth, most successful interventions have tended to focus on only one of these domains. In this manuscript, we suggest that it may be possible to address both development and growth simultaneously and effectively. In particular, current theoretical models suggest alignment in mechanisms by which poverty can create barriers to parent-child early relational health (i.e., parenting practices, creating structure, and parent-child relationship quality), constituting a final common pathway for both domains. Based on these models and related empirical data, we propose a strength-based, whole child approach to target common antecedents through positive parenting and prevent disparities in both development and growth; we believe this approach has the potential to transform policy and practice. Achieving these goals will require new payment systems that make scaling of primary prevention in health care feasible, research funding to assess efficacy/effectiveness and inform implementation, and collaboration among early childhood stakeholders, including clinicians across specialties, scientists across academic disciplines, and policy makers.
PMID: 34740424
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 5038532

Development of an Eco-Biodevelopmental Model of Emergent Literacy Before Kindergarten: A Review

Hutton, John S; DeWitt, Thomas; Hoffman, Lauren; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Klass, Perri
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Literacy has been described as an important social determinant of health. Its components emerge in infancy and are dependent on genetic, medical, and environmental factors. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates a substantial role for pediatricians in literacy promotion, developmental surveillance, and school readiness to promote cognitive, relational, and brain development. Many children, especially those from minority and underserved households, enter kindergarten unprepared to learn to read and subsequently have difficulty in school. Observations/UNASSIGNED:Emergent literacy is a developmental process beginning in infancy. Component skills are supported by brain regions that must be adequately stimulated and integrated to form a functional reading network. Trajectories are associated with genetic, medical, and environmental factors, notably the home literacy environment, which is defined as resources, motivation, and stimulation that encourage the literacy development process. Eco-biodevelopmental models are advocated by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and these models offer insights into the neurobiological processes associated with environmental factors and the ways in which these processes may be addressed to improve outcomes. Emergent literacy is well suited for such a model, particularly because the mechanisms underlying component skills are elucidated. In addition to cognitive-behavioral benefits, the association of home literacy environment with the developing brain before kindergarten has recently been described via neuroimaging. Rather than a passive approach, which may subject the child to stress and engender negative attitudes, early literacy screening and interventions that are administered by pediatric practitioners can help identify potential reading difficulties, address risk factors during a period when neural plasticity is high, and improve outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence inform an eco-biodevelopmental model of emergent literacy that is associated with genetic, medical, and home literacy environmental factors before kindergarten, a time of rapid brain development. This framework is consistent with recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and provides insights to help identify risk factors and signs of potential reading difficulties, tailor guidance, and provide direction for future research.
PMID: 33720328
ISSN: 2168-6211
CID: 4825962

Creating Practical Primary Care Supports for Parent-Child Relationships-Language, Literacy, and Love

Klass, Perri; Navsaria, Dipesh
PMID: 33427876
ISSN: 2168-6211
CID: 4765172

Pediatric primary care and partnerships across sectors to promote early child development

Roby, Erin; Shaw, Daniel S; Morris, Pamela; Canfield, Caitlin F; Miller, Elizabeth B; Dreyer, Benard; Klass, Perri; Ettinger, Anna; Miller, Elizabeth; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty remains a critical predictor of children's school readiness, health and longer term outcomes. Early relational health (ERH) (i.e., parenting practices and relationship quality) mediates the impact of poverty on child development, and thus has been the focus of many parenting interventions. Despite the documented efficacy of parenting interventions at reducing poverty-related disparities in child health and development, several key barriers prevent achieving population-level reach to families with young children. In the current paper we highlight several of these barriers including gaining population-level access to young children and families, reaching families only through single points of access, addressing the significant heterogeneity of risk that exists among families living in poverty, as well as addressing each of these barriers in combination. We suggest that understanding and confronting these barriers will allow family-centered interventions to more effectively address issues related to ERH at a population level, which in turn will reduce poverty-related disparities in child development.
PMID: 33352322
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 4726522

"A Sick Child is Always the Mother's Property": The Jane Austen Pediatric Trauma Management Protocol

Klass, Perri
Two pediatric accidents in Jane Austen's Persuasion (1818) and one in Margaret Oliphant's The Doctor's Family (1863) are examined from the point of view of trauma management with analysis of contributing risk factors, medical management, concerns of parents and bystanders, and course of recovery. Risk factors for injury are impulsivity, poor supervision, and parents who are unable to set limits. Medical attention is swift and competent, but no heroic measures are used; the management of the injuries, concussion with loss of consciousness and dislocation of the collar bone, is consistent with the way these conditions are, for the most part, still managed today, and successful recovery depends on careful nursing and rest. Louisa Musgrove, who suffers a severe head injury, requires ten weeks of convalescence and undergoes a marked personality change, which we might today attribute in part to post-concussion syndrome but which may reflect contemporary debate about the biological basis of personality and behavior. A sudden traumatic injury to a child or adolescent changes the narrative abruptly, in fiction or in life, dividing a story into before and after, introducing grief and anxiety, and requiring that plans be rethought and personal relationships reshuffled with decisions about caretaking and nursing.
PMID: 32918683
ISSN: 1573-3645
CID: 4765052