INTERNAL MEDICINE RESIDENTS LACK CONFIDENCE AND EXPERIENCE MANAGING UNHEALTHY ALCOHOL USE IN THE OUTPATIENT SETTING [Meeting Abstract]
Sexuality and Intimacy Needs Within a Hospitalized Palliative Care Population: Results From a Qualitative Study
BACKGROUND:Palliative care (PC) clinicians are well trained to address physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients who have a serious illness. However, one area that is often overlooked is intimacy and sexuality. OBJECTIVE:To explore patient concerns regarding intimacy as it relates to illness, family reactions, physician conversations, and coping strategies and challenges. METHODS:Eligible subjects (at least 18 years old, capacitated, receiving PC consultation at the lead author's institution) participated in semi-structured interviews between November and December 2017. Transcripts were open-coded and analyzed using Dedoose 3.5.35 software. A constant comparative method was used to identify patterns in the data. RESULTS:21 interviews were analyzed and several themes emerged. Participants described the effect of physical and mental/emotional changes on their relationships. Family relationships, romantic relationships, and sexuality were prominent in patients' experiences of intimacy and how it changed as the illness progressed. Relationships were often noted to strengthen during the course of illness, while sexual activity was frequently reported to be negatively impacted. Patients consistently reported little provider communication on the impact of illness on intimacy beyond instructions about what sexual activities they could or could not engage in. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study underlines the significant impact of serious, progressive illness on relationships, sexuality, and physical and emotional intimacy. It highlights that these topics continue to be priorities for patients with serious illness, and that medical teams frequently fail to address them at all. Future research should further explore these issues across diverse patient populations.
Myocardial Fat Accumulation Is Independent of Measures of Insulin Sensitivity
BACKGROUND:Myocardial steatosis, an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction, is frequently present in type 2 diabetes mellitus. High free fatty acid flux, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in myocardial steatosis. There are no prior studies examining the relationship between insulin sensitivity (antilipolytic and glucose disposal actions of insulin) and cardiac steatosis. OBJECTIVE:Using a cross-sectional study design of individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), we examined the relationships between cardiac steatosis and the sensitivity of the antilipolytic and glucose disposal actions of insulin. METHODS:Pericardial fat (PF) volume, intramyocardial and hepatic fat (MF and HF) content, visceral fat (VF) and sc fat content were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 77 subjects (49 without MetSyn and 28 with MetSyn). In a subset of the larger cohort (n = 52), peripheral insulin sensitivity index (SI) and adipocyte insulin sensitivity (Adipo-SI) were determined from an insulin-modified frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test. The Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index was used as a surrogate for hepatic insulin sensitivity. RESULTS:Individuals with the MetSyn had significantly higher body mass index, total body fat, and MF, PF, HF, and VF content. HF and VF, but not MF, were negatively correlated with the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, Adipo-SI, and SI. Stepwise regression revealed that waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels independently predicted MF and PF, respectively. Adipo-SI and serum triglyceride levels independently predict HF. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Myocardial steatosis is unrelated to hepatic, adipocyte, or peripheral insulin sensitivity. Although it is frequently observed in insulin-resistant subjects, further studies are necessary to identify and delineate pathogenic mechanisms that differentially affect cardiac and hepatic steatosis.
RM-493, a melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, increases resting energy expenditure in obese individuals
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING/OBJECTIVE:In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. STUDY PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 Â± 2.9 kg/m(2) (mean Â± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. RESULTS:RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68-13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15-207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 Â± 0.021 vs 0.848 Â± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. CONCLUSIONS:Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals.