Retrospective analysis of the effect of limited english proficiency on abdominal MRI image quality
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of English proficiency on abdominal MRI imaging quality. METHODS:Three equal-sized cohorts of patients undergoing 3T abdominal MRI were identified based on English proficiency as documented in the EMR: Primary language of English; English as a second language (ESL)/no translator needed; or ESL, translator needed (42 patients per cohort for total study size of 126 patients). Three radiologists independently used a 1-5 Likert scale to assess respiratory motion and image quality on turbo spin-echo T2WI and post-contrast T1WI. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS:For T2WI respiratory motion, all three readers scored the Translator group significantly worse than the English and ESL/no-Translator groups (mean scores across readers of 2.98 vs. 3.58 and 3.51; p valuesâ€‰<â€‰0.001-0.008). For T2WI overall image quality, all three readers also scored the Translator group significantly worse than the English and ESL/no-Translator groups (2.77 vs. 3.28 and 3.31; p values 0.002-0.005). For T1WI respiratory motion, mean scores were not significantly different between groups (English: 4.14, ESL/no-Translator: 4.02, Translator: 3.94; p values 0.398-0.597). For T1WI overall image quality, mean scores also were not significantly different (4.09, 3.99, and 3.95, respectively; p values 0.369-0.831). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Abdominal MR examinations show significantly worse T2WI respiratory motion and overall image quality when requiring a translator, even compared with non-translator exams in non-English primary language patients. Strategies are warranted to improve coordination among MR technologists, translators, and non-English speaking patients undergoing abdominal MR, to ensure robust image quality in this vulnerable patient population.
Imaging manifestations of immune-related adverse effects in checkpoint inhibitor therapies: A primer for the radiologist
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies directed against cellular pathways on T-cells to treat different types of malignancies. This new therapy can cause immune-related adverse events that can involve almost any organ system. This article will review clinical presentations, molecular mechanisms and imaging manifestations of adverse events caused by checkpoint inhibitors and also illustrate the pseudoprogression tumor response pattern.
Utility of an Automated Radiology-Pathology Feedback Tool
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine the utility of an automated radiology-pathology feedback tool. METHODS:We previously developed a tool that automatically provides radiologists with pathology results related to imaging examinations they interpreted. The tool also allows radiologists to mark the results as concordant or discordant. Five abdominal radiologists prospectively scored their own discordant results related to their previously interpreted abdominal ultrasound, CT, and MR interpretations between August 2017 and June 2018. Radiologists recorded whether they would have followed up on the case if there was no automated alert, reason for the discordance, whether the result required further action, prompted imaging rereview, influenced future interpretations, enhanced teaching files, or inspired a research idea. RESULTS:There were 234 total discordances (range 30-66 per radiologist), and 70.5% (165 of 234) of discordances would not have been manually followed up in the absence of the automated tool. Reasons for discordances included missed findings (10.7%; 25 of 234), misinterpreted findings (29.1%; 68 of 234), possible biopsy sampling error (13.3%; 31 of 234), and limitations of imaging techniques (32.1%; 75/234). In addition, 4.7% (11 of 234) required further radiologist action, including report addenda or discussion with referrer or pathologist, and 93.2% (218 of 234) prompted radiologists to rereview the images. Radiologists reported that they learned from 88% (206 of 234) of discordances, 38.6% (90 of 233) of discordances probably or definitely influenced future interpretations, 55.6% (130 of 234) of discordances prompted the radiologist to add the case to his or her teaching files, and 13.7% (32 of 233) inspired a research idea. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Automated pathology feedback provides a valuable opportunity for radiologists across experience levels to learn, increase their skill, and improve patient care.
Effects of testosterone administration (and its 5-alpha-reduction) on parenchymal organ volumes in healthy young men: findings from a dose-response trial
Animal data shows that testosterone administration increases the volume of some parenchymal organs. However, the effects of exogenous testosterone on solid abdominal organs in humans remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on the volume of liver, spleen and kidneys in a dose-response trial. Young healthy men aged 18-50 years participating in the 5alpha-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300 or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate, and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5 alpha-reductase inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Liver, spleen and kidney volumes were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose-effect of testosterone on changes in the volume of parenchymal organs was evaluated by linear regression model. The association between changes in total testosterone (TT) levels and changes in organ volumes were assessed. Testosterone administration increased liver volume dose-dependently (17.4 cm3 per 100 mg of weekly testosterone enanthate; p = 0.031); the increase in liver volume was positively associated with changes in TT levels (R2 = 0.08, p = 0.024). A dose-dependent, but non-significant, increase in kidney volumes was also seen. Inclusion of dutasteride use into the models showed an independent association of randomization to dutasteride group with liver volume increase. In conclusion, Testosterone administration increased the liver volume in a dose-dependent manner. The potential changes in parenchymal organs should be considered when interpreting apparent changes in lean mass in response to anabolic interventions.
Imaging of Pancreatic and Duodenal Trauma
Pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare but life-threatening occurrences, often occurring in association with other solid organ injuries. Findings of pancreatic and duodenal trauma on computed tomography and MR imaging are often nonspecific, and high levels of clinical suspicion and understanding of mechanism of injury are imperative. Familiarity with the grading schemes of pancreatic and duodenal injury is important because they help in assessing for key imaging findings that directly influence management. This article presents an overview of imaging of blunt and penetrating pancreatic and duodenal injuries, including pathophysiology, available imaging techniques, and variety of imaging features.
Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant osseous tumors of the fingers
Primary lesions of the tubular bones of the digits are not uncommon, and the vast majority of these lesions are benign. Benign intramedullary lesions such as enchondromas are frequently discovered incidentally, unless they are associated with a pathologic fracture. Expansile lesions or lesions that are pedunculated and protrude from the cortex may manifest with pain and functional deficits from local inflammatory reactions. Systemic disorders such as sarcoidosis and local soft-tissue lesions with involvement of adjacent bone may mimic primary phalangeal bone tumors. Primary or secondary malignant lesions of the phalanges, most commonly chondrosarcomas, are extremely rare, and their characterization may require the use of multiple modalities, including radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although ultrasonography is extremely useful in the evaluation of soft-tissue lesions of the hand, its role in the evaluation of osseous lesions is limited. The authors describe the imaging features of the most common benign osseous and chondral lesions of the fingers, including enchondromas, cystic lesions, and osteochondromas. In addition, they discuss malignant entities that may occur in the fingers (eg, chondrosarcomas and metastatic lesions) and commonly encountered mimics of primary osseous lesions (eg, glomus tumors, intraosseous epidermal inclusion cysts, infectious entities, and manifestations of systemic diseases). They also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used imaging modalities in differentiating benign from malignant lesions.
Biliary imaging: multimodality approach to imaging of biliary injuries and their complications
Although traumatic and iatrogenic bile leaks are rare, they have become more prevalent in recent years due to an increased propensity toward nonsurgical management of patients with liver trauma and an overall increase in the number of hepatobiliary surgeries being performed. Because clinical signs and symptoms of bile leaks are nonspecific and delay in the recognition of bile leaks is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, imaging is crucial for establishing an early diagnosis and guiding the treatment algorithm. At computed tomography or ultrasonography, free or contained peri- or intrahepatic low-attenuation (low-density) fluid in the setting of recent trauma or hepatobiliary surgery should raise suspicion for a bile leak. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography with hepatobiliary contrast agents can help detect active or contained bile leaks. MR cholangiopancreatography with hepatobiliary contrast agents has the added advantage of being able to help localize the bile leak, which in turn can help determine if endoscopic management is sufficient or if surgical management is warranted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may provide diagnostic confirmation and concurrent therapy when nonsurgical management is pursued. A multimodality imaging approach is helpful in diagnosing traumatic or iatrogenic biliary injuries, accurately localizing a bile leak, and determining appropriate treatment.
Clinical Significance of Lung Nodules Reported on Abdominal CT
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to identify the significance of lung nodules reported on abdominal CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominal CT reports from a 1-year period were reviewed for the terms "nodule," "nodular," or "mass" in reference to the lung bases. Patients with prior chest or abdominal CT examinations were excluded; the study population included patients with an initial abdominal CT study and at least one follow-up chest or abdominal CT examination. Two thoracic radiologists characterized nodules in consensus. Radiology and clinical records were reviewed for nodule growth and clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: The term "nodule," "nodular," or "mass" in reference to the lung bases was reported in 364 of 12,287 abdominal CT studies (3%). Of 125 patients with no prior CT examination, 42 had undergone follow-up chest CT, abdominal CT, or both. Common imaging indications included abdominal pain (13/42, 31%) and preexisting malignancy (n = 7, 16.7%). Regardless of the indication for imaging, 16 (38.1%) had malignancy that was known (n = 13) or newly diagnosed (n = 3) on the initial abdominal CT. Three of 42 patients (7.1%) had malignant nodules representing metastatic disease: Nodule growth was seen in one patient with preexisting colon cancer, one patient with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic cancer, and a third with known bladder cancer. The latter patient had suspected lung metastases that were confirmed on chest CT 1 day later. Three of the 16 patients (18.8%) with preexisting or newly diagnosed cancer had malignant nodules. No malignant nodules were identified without such history. Six patients (14.3%) had an infection. CONCLUSION: Lung nodules incidentally detected on abdominal CT were rarely malignant and were seen only in the setting of an underlying abdominal malignancy. Knowledge of such history is of critical importance to both the clinician and the radiologist. Dedicated chest CT is most useful when assessing pulmonary nodules in patients with localized malignancy.