Body mass index and additional risk factors for cancer in adults with cystic fibrosis
BACKGROUND:Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have an increased risk of a variety of cancers, notably gastrointestinal cancers. In CF higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved long-term outcomes, yet in the general population high BMI is associated with increased cancer risk. We aimed to delineate associations between BMI and other factors with cancer risk in adults with CF. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study using CF Foundation Patient Registry data from 1992 to 2015. Data were collected on age, sex, CFTR mutation class, pancreatic insufficiency, and annualized data on BMI and FEV1. The primary analysis was the association between BMI and cancer, with secondary analyses focused on BMI trajectory. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, with analyses stratified by history of transplant. RESULTS:Of 26,199 adults with CF, 446 (1.7%) had cancer diagnosed by histology at a mean age of 40.0Â years (SD 12.2), with a higher proportion of transplanted patients developing cancer (137 (3.8%) v 309(1.4%), pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Among non-transplanted patients, there was no association between BMI and cancer (p for trendâ€‰=â€‰0.43). Pancreatic insufficiency (pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) and higher FEV1 (pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) were associated with increased cancer risk. In transplanted patients, higher BMI was associated with reduced risk of cancer (p for trendâ€‰=â€‰0.04). Older age was associated with increased risk in both groups (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). BMI trajectories were not associated with cancer risk in either group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Higher BMI is associated with a reduced risk of cancer in transplanted adults with CF. Pancreatic insufficiency is a risk factor for cancer in non-transplanted CF patients.
Functional Chest Pain and Esophageal Hypersensitivity: A Clinical Approach
Functional chest pain, functional heartburn, and reflux hypersensitivity are 3 functional esophageal disorders defined by the Rome IV criteria. Specific criteria, combining symptoms and the results of objective testing, allow for an accurate diagnosis of these conditions. Management may include medications targeted at optimizing acid suppression or neuromodulation, as well as a host of complementary or alternative treatment options. Psychological and behavioral interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy, have displayed substantial benefits in the treatment of functional chest pain and functional heartburn. Acid suppression and focused neuromodulation are key evidence-based treatment options for reflux hypersensitivity.
Increased Risk of Pancreatitis after Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Following a Positive Intraoperative Cholangiogram: A Single-Center Experience
Background/Aims/UNASSIGNED:To determine if patients with a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) who undergo a subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have an increased risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) compared to those who undergo ERCP directly for suspected common bile duct stones. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective case-control study was performed from 2010 to 2016. Cases included inpatients with a positive IOC at cholecystectomy who underwent subsequent ERCP. The control group included age-sex matched cohorts who underwent ERCP for choledocholithiasis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between PEP and positive IOC, adjusting for matching variables and additional potential confounders. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 116 patients that met the inclusion criteria, there were 91 women (78%) in each group. Nine patients (7.8%) developed PEP in the IOC group, compared to 3 patients in the control group (2.6%). The use of pancreatic duct stents and rectal indomethacin was similar in both groups. After adjusting for age, sex, total bilirubin levels, and any stent placement, patients with a positive IOC had a significantly increased risk of PEP (odds ratio, 4.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-21.89; p<0.05). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In this single-center case-control study, there was a five-fold increased risk of PEP following a positive IOC compared to an age-sex matched cohort.
The Napoleon: A Pilot Feasibility Study of a Small Endoscopic Ruler for Accurate Polyp Measurement [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Multi-society recommendations state, "Given the importance of polyp size for informing surveillance intervals, documentation of a polyp > 10 mm within a report should be accompanied by an endoscopic photo of the polyp with comparison to an open snare or open biopsy forceps".1 We evaluate the feasibility of the Napoleon, an endoscopically-deployed small ruler to more accurately measure and document the size of colon polyps.
METHOD(S): The Micro-Tech Endoscopic Gauge (Non-FDA approved) named Napoleon, a catheter with a 15 mm ruler calibrated in 1 mm intervals with demarcations every 5 MM, was advanced through the biopsy channel of a colonoscope and positioned adjacent to a polyp to accurately measure polyp size (Image 1). Polyps sizes were first assessed visually and then measured using the Napoleon. Patients included were 50 to 85 years of age and undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Napoleon placement, extension/retraction, and photograph acquisition were evaluated on a 1-s10 scale (1 = Easy, 10 = Difficult).
RESULT(S): 23 patients were evaluated by 6 physicians. A total of 36 polyps were found. Each score represents the average of several polyps if more than one polyp was identified per patient (Table 1). The most polyps found in any patient was 3. Each polyp size was placed into 1 of 3 categories (Table 2): 1-5 mm (Diminutive), 6-9 mm (Small) and $ 10 mm (Large). 30 of the 36 total polyps (83%) were diminutive. 3 polyps were downgraded into the next smaller size category after measurement with the Napoleon - specifically, 1 polyp (33%) dropped from small to diminutive size and 2 polyps (67%) dropped from large to small size.
CONCLUSION(S): Prior studies on polyp size have shown that visual assessment is inaccurate.2 This study demonstrates the ease and feasibility of the Napoleon as an endoscopic measuring device. The majority of polyps found were diminutive (1-5 mm) and explains why there is such a minute difference noted in the weighted mean polyp size (0.28 mm). Of the 3 polyps that were visually assessed to be $ 10 mm, 2 of those polyps (67%) were measured to be < 10 mm, changing recommended surveillance from 3 years to 7-10 years.1 Further studies utilizing an endoscopic measuring tool such as the Napoleon are needed to evaluate the effect of accurate polyp measurement on our clinical management, training, and colonoscopy surveillance intervals
Endoscopic Biopsies during Presentation for Esophageal Food Impaction: An Important Opportunity for Timely Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Esophageal food impaction (EFI) is a common initial presentation of eo-sinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Patients presenting with EFI requiring endoscopic intervention present an opportunity to obtain esophageal biopsies to evaluate for EoE and optimize diagnostic yield before initiation of empiric treatment. We aimed to evaluate practices of esophageal biopsy at time of EFI at our institution and identify missed opportunities to diagnose EoE.
METHOD(S): We performed a single center retrospective chart review on a subset of adult patients from 10/2015 -1/2020 who presented to NYU Langone Health with EFI. Patients who underwent upper endoscopy (EGD) and were found to have a retained esophageal food bolus were included. Those with prior diagnosis of EoE were excluded. Proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and rank sum tests were used to compare continuous variables. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with subsequent need for diagnostic EGD.
RESULT(S): 123 patients with EFI were reviewed, 50 (40.7%) were biopsied at the time of EGD (Table 1). Among those biopsied, a new diagnosis of EoE was found in 52%. Of the patients who did not undergo biopsy at index EGD, 23% underwent repeat EGD at our institution and were found to have a new EoE diagnosis. Biopsies performed during EGD for EFI did appear to decrease the need for repeat procedure (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.25-1.63), although not statistically significant. Patients with furrows were more likely to be biopsied however the report of other classic endoscopic features of EoE (such as exudates, ring, stricture, edema), was not significantly associated with the rate of biopsy (Table 2). Time of procedure and history of prior EFI also did not appear to influence rate of biopsy.
CONCLUSION(S): Biopsy at the time of EFI is important to obtain a timely diagnosis of EoE. At our center, less than half of patients were biopsied at time of initial EGD for EFI, and over half of those biopsied were diagnosed with EoE. The diagnosis of EoE was missed in 23% patients who were not biopsied at time of EFI, and on subsequent EGD with biopsy were found to have EoE. This delay in biopsy likely leads to unnecessary EGDs and more patients who are unaware of their diagnosis. Future educational initiatives aimed at GI providers are needed to improve rates of biopsies during initial EGD for EFI to reduce the need for additional diagnostic procedures
Esophageal motility disorders and gerd in patients with bronchiectasis [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiectasis is a common chronic pulmonary condition characterized by inflammation and recurrent infections. There is evidence that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with bronchiectasis and can increase the severity of pulmonary disease. Data regarding esophageal function in this population is sparse. We aimed to assess whether patients with bronchiectasis have an increased prevalence of esophageal motility disturbances and GERD.
METHOD(S): We conducted a single-center matched cohort study of all adult patients with confirmed bronchiectasis who underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) between 11/ 2014-3/2018. All cases were randomly matched with a control by age (65 years) and sex. Chicago Classification 3.0 was used to characterize HRM findings. Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (pH-MII) was utilized to assess reflux burden. Statistical relationships between proportions were evaluated by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and continuous variables were compared using t-test or rank sum test.
RESULT(S): 63 bronchiectasis patients underwent HRM, of which 54 underwent pH-MII. Of the controls, 63 underwent HRM, of which 39 underwent pH-MII. Baseline characteristics between cases and controls were similar. Mean age of bronchiectasis patients was 65 (SD 12.73), mean body mass index was 25.51 (SD 8.50), 70% were female, and 48% had a smoking history (Table). HRM did not demonstrate any significant differences between cases and controls. pH-MII trended towards a greater reflux burden among controls. However, nearly half of cases had conclusive evidence of pathologic reflux by esophageal acid exposure on pH-MII. On endoscopy, no significant differences were noted.
CONCLUSION(S): Esophageal motility and acid exposure did not significantly differ among patients with bronchiectasis and controls, which may indicate that esophageal physiology in bronchiectasis is not unique. Nevertheless, more than half of the bronchiectasis group had evidence of abnormal esophageal motility and almost half of patients had conclusive evidence of pathologic reflux. Small differences are likely due to the high prevalence of GERD and associated motility disorders in the control group. Larger studies are warranted to further characterize esophageal physiology in these patients and the potential impact on pulmonary pathology. (Table Presented)
Patterns of Marijuana Use Among Patients With Celiac Disease in the United States: A Population-based Analysis of the NHANES Survey
BACKGROUND:Marijuana use has been assessed in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders and may contribute to either symptoms or palliation. Use in those with celiac disease (CD) has not been assessed. Our aim was to evaluate patterns of marijuana use in a large population-based survey among patients with CD, people who avoid gluten (PWAG), and controls. STUDY/METHODS:We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2014. Ï‡ tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to compare participants with CD and PWAG to controls regarding the use of marijuana. RESULTS:Among respondents who reported ever using marijuana (overall 59.1%), routine (at-least monthly) marijuana use was reported by 46% of controls versus 6% of participants with diagnosed CD (P=0.005) and 66% undiagnosed CD as identified on serology (P=0.098) and 51% of PWAG (P=0.536). Subjects with diagnosed CD had lower odds of routine marijuana use compared with controls (odds ratio, 0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.73), whereas participants with undiagnosed CD had increased odds of routine use (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-6.13), which remained elevated even after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, health insurance status, alcohol, tobacco use, educational level, and poverty/income ratio. CONCLUSIONS:In all groups, marijuana use was high. Although there were no differences among subjects with CD, PWAG, and controls who ever used marijuana, subjects with diagnosed CD appear to have decreased routine use of marijuana when compared with controls and PWAG. Those with undiagnosed CD have significantly higher rates of regular use. Future research should focus on the utilization of marijuana as it may contribute to further understanding of symptoms and treatments.
Use of the Electronic Health Record to Target Patients for Non-endoscopic Barrett's Esophagus Screening
BACKGROUND:Clinical prediction models targeting patients for Barrett's esophagus (BE) screening include data obtained by interview, questionnaire, and body measurements. A tool based on electronic health records (EHR) data could reduce cost and enhance usability, particularly if combined with non-endoscopic BE screening methods. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To determine whether EHR-based data can identify BE patients. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of patients ages 50-75 who underwent a first-time esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Data extracted from the EHR included demographics and BE risk factors. Endoscopy and pathology reports were reviewed for histologically confirmed BE. Screening criteria modified from clinical guidelines were assessed for association with BE. Subsequently, a score based on multivariate logistic regression was developed and assessed for its ability to identify BE subjects. RESULTS:A total of 2931 patients were assessed, and BE was found in 1.9%. Subjects who met screening criteria were more likely to have BE (3.3% vs. 1.1%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.001), and the criteria predicted BE with an AUROC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.59-0.71). A score based on logistic regression modeling included gastroesophageal reflux disease, sex, body mass index, and ever-smoker status and identified BE subjects with an AUROC of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64-0.77). Both prediction tools produced higher AUROCs in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS:EHR-based BE risk prediction tools identify BE patients with fair accuracy. While these tools may improve the efficiency of patient targeting for BE screening in the primary care setting, challenges remain to identify high-risk patients for non-invasive BE screening in clinical practice.
Has-bled scores underestimate gastrointestinal bleeding risk among those with H. pylori [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in the setting of anti-coagulation is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Prediction models, such as the HAS-BLED score, are recommended by guidelines and used by clinicians to assess the risk of major bleeding among atrial fibrillation patients treated with warfarin. Whether gastric colonization by H. pylori (HP) confers bleeding risk that is unaccounted for by the HAS-BLED score is unknown. We hypothesized that HAS-BLED scores (ranging from 0-9, with higher scores indicating higher bleeding risk) would be lower among patients with upper GIB who have gastric colonization by HP than in those without HP.
METHOD(S): We examined all patients at a single medical center who had an upper endoscopy for suspected GIB between 2011-2018 with findings of a gastric or duodenal ulcer. Only patients who were tested for H. pylori by any modality and had taken warfarin within one week prior to endoscopy were included in the analysis. We calculated the HAS-BLED score for all patients, and compared the HAS-BLED scores of HP-positive and HP-negative patients using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In a secondary analysis, we classified patients as having a high risk for bleeding (score >=3) or low risk for bleeding (score <3), and used Fisher's exact test to compare the prevalence of a high risk score between the HP positive and negative groups.
RESULT(S): Of the 1,578 bleeding events reviewed, 62 patients were determined to be taking warfarin within one week of the GIB and had HP status checked. HP testing was positive in 12/62 (19%) patients and negative in 50/62 (81%) patients. Multiple individual components of the HASBLED score differed between HP positive and negative patients (Table 1). The median scores for HP positive and negative patients were 2 (IQR, 2-2.25) and 3 (IQR, 2-4), respectively (P < >01). In our secondary analysis, 3/12 (25%) of HP positive patients were classified as high risk for bleeding by the HAS-BLED score whereas 32/50 (64%) were classified as such among HP negative patients (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION(S): Among patients with warfarin-associated upper GIB, those who were HP positive had significantly lower HAS-BLED scores as compared to those who were HP negative. The HASBLED prediction model may not account for GIB risk associated with HP colonization. Further studies should assess whether prediction models should include HP status, and whether screening for HP when starting anticoagulation is warranted. (Figure Presented)
Clostridioides difficile infection and recurrence among 2622 solid organ transplant recipients
BACKGROUND:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is common after solid organ transplant (SOT) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We assessed incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CDI among SOT patients at a large multi-organ transplant center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for initial and recurrent CDI. RESULTS:A total of 2622 SOT patients were included. 224 (8.5%) had CDI 1Â year post-SOT. The highest incidence of CDI was among pancreas recipients (12.5%) followed by lung (11.7%), liver (11.0%), heart (10.8%), and kidney (5.8%). Median time to CDI was 56Â days (range 2-354) post-SOT. About 64% of patients had severe CDI. About 56.3% were treated with metronidazole, 13.8% with oral vancomycin, and 28.6% with both. About 28.6% of patients had recurrent CDI. In multivariable modeling, lung transplant recipient status was the only significant predictor of recurrent CDI (OR 4.97, 95% CI 2.11-11.78, PÂ <Â .001) controlling for age, severe CDI, and pre-SOT CDI. Post-SOT CDI nearly doubled the risk of mortality at one year, in particular among those with severe CDI. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, CDI is highly prevalent, occurs early in the post-transplant period, usually severe, with a high rate of recurrence, and associated with increased mortality within 1Â year after transplant. The early post-transplant period may be a crucial window to reduce CDI rates.