Osseointegrated Auditory Devices-Transcutaneous: Sophono and Baha Attract
Percutaneous osseointegrated bone conduction auditory devices provide excellent auditory rehabilitation. Device-related complications relate to skin abutment interface and cosmetic concerns, resulting in the development of transcutaneous devices. The Sophono and Baha Attract are safe and considered cosmetically superior to the percutaneous Baha Connect and Ponto. They provide excellent auditory enhancement; however, owing to indirect connectivity between processor and implant, there is on average 5- to 7-db less gain when compared with percutaneous bone-anchored implants. Surgical implantation of either device is usually performed under monitored sedation, in an ambulatory setting, with less than a 1-hour operative time, and minimal complications.
Implantable Auditory Devices: Bridging the Gap Between Conventional Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants [Editorial]
The malleus to oval window revision stapedotomy: Efficacy and longitudinal study outcome
OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal effectiveness of the malleus to oval window stapedotomy technique among patients undergoing revision surgery when the incus is unavailable. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case series. METHODS: Charts of 15 patients who underwent 17 malleus attachment stapedotomies performed by a single surgeon from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed. Surgery was ambulatory, transcanal, with laser technique, and under local anesthesia. RESULTS: Of 17 stapedotomies performed, there were nine first revisions, six second revisions, one third revision, and one fourth revision. There were no surgical complications. Mean preoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was 32.3 dB. Mean postoperative ABG at 6 months was 10.7 dB, and at last follow-up was 16.3 dB. Average length of follow-up was 36.5 months. At last follow-up, 100% of first revisions achieved ABG = 20 dB (77.8% = 10 dB), compared to 50% of second revisions with ABG = 20 dB (none = 10 dB), and 0% of third or fourth revisions with ABG = 20 dB. Trend lines for second and third/fourth revisions showed a deterioration (widening) in postoperative ABG by 0.18 and 0.72 dB per month, respectively. The first-revision trend line, conversely, showed negligible change with time, demonstrating the superior durability of first revisions compared to subsequent surgeries. CONCLUSION: The malleus to oval window stapedotomy technique is more effective and longer lasting in first-revision surgery compared to subsequent procedures. Standard or implantable amplification devices may be preferable for patients with multiple prior procedures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.
Image-guided surgical navigation in otology
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the efficacy of image-guided surgical navigation (IGSN) in otologic surgery and establish practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Between January 2003 and January 2010, all patients requiring complicated surgery for chronic otitis media, glomus jugulare, atresia, cerebrospinal fluid leak with or without encephalocele, and cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex were offered IGSN. The accuracy of IGSN relative to pertinent pathology and 11 anatomic landmarks was established. Additionally IGSN-related operative time, complications, and surgical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: In the study period there were 820 otologic procedures, among 94 patients (96 ears) with disease meeting proposed criteria. Thirteen patients (15 procedures) consented to the use of IGSN. All patients had a minimum 6 months of follow-up. The average additional operative time required was 36.7 minutes. The mean accuracy error was 1.1 mm laterally at the tragus but decreased to 0.8 mm medially at the level of the oval window. The mean accuracy of IGSN was within 1 mm in 10 of the 11 targeted surgical anatomic landmarks. CONCLUSIONS: Interactive image-guided surgical navigation during complex otologic surgery may improve surgical outcome and decrease morbidity by providing an accurate real-time display of surgical instrumentation relative to patient anatomy and pathology. In select cases, the extra cost of imaging immediately prior to surgery and extra operating room time may be compensated by enhancing the ability to distinguish distorted anatomy relative to disease, potentially improving surgical outcome. IGSN, although useful, does not replace surgical expertise and experience.
Large jugular bulb abnormalities involving the middle ear
OBJECTIVE: Jugular bulb abnormalities (JBA), such as jugular bulb diverticula (JBD) or large jugular bulbs, rarely present in the middle ear. We review a large series of temporal bone histopathologic specimens to determine their prevalence and present a series of cases of JB abnormalities involving the middle ear (JBME) that shed light on the probable mechanism for their development. PATIENTS: 1,579 unique temporal bone specimens and individuals with radiographically-diagnosed JBME. INTERVENTION: Histopathologic and clinical review of temporal bone specimens and patient presentations, radiographic findings, treatments and outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Shared characteristics of JBME. RESULTS: There were 17 cases of JBME in 1,579 temporal bone (1.1%), of which, 15 involved the inferior mesotympanum below the level of the round window membrane (RWM), whereas 2 encroached upon the RWM or ossicles. In addition, 4 clinical cases of large JBME extending above RWM were encountered; these occurred in both sexes with ages spanning from young to old (7-66 yr). They presented with conductive hearing loss (n = 3), ear canal mass (n = 1), and intraoperative bleeding (n = 1). Radiologically, they had multiple diverticula of the JB on the side with JBME, with 1 patient demonstrating growth on serial imaging studies. All patients who underwent additional imaging had marked hypoplastic contralateral transverse sinus. CONCLUSION: JBME abnormalities are rare, present across age groups, and may demonstrate serial growth over time. They are usually associated with multiple other diverticula within the same JB. Our clinical series suggests that JBME's development and uniquely aggressive behavior results from contralateral transverse sinus outflow obstruction.
Revision cochlear implant surgery in patients with suspected soft failures
OBJECTIVE: To review our patient series who underwent revision cochlear implantation surgery, with special emphasis on the 'soft failure' group. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of cochlear implant revision surgeries from 1979 to 2008. An extensive review of these patients' medical, audiologic, and radiographic histories was performed. SETTING: Two tertiary care hospitals and 1 academic cochlear implant center. INTERVENTION: Explantation and reimplantation of cochlear implant, explanted device analysis, speech perception testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative speech performance. RESULTS: Approximately 1,500 cochlear implant surgeries were performed from 1979 to 2008. Of these, 113 (7.53%) procedures in 98 patients were revision cases. The underlying reason for revision surgery was divided into 4 categories: 26 hard failures (23%), 31 medical failures (27.4%), 14 soft failures (12.4%), and 42 (37.2%) not classified/ambiguous cases. The last group was not categorized because of lack of available medical documentation or because of an ambiguous device failure analysis. The top 3 most common causes of hard failure were loss of hermiticity (8 patients [30.8%]), Vendor B defects (7 patients [26.9%]), and cracked casing (4 patients [15.4%]). The most common cause of medical failure was device extrusion (11 patients [35.5%]) followed by head trauma to the site of implantation (11 patients [35.5%]), and wound infection (5 patients [16.1%]). Fourteen patients (14.2%) were categorized as soft failures. All soft failure patients demonstrated a deterioration in pure-tone average and speech perception. Of the soft failure group, time to revision surgery was 4.7 years in contrast to 4.2 years for the hard failure group and 4.3 years for all revisions. An extensive review of patients' medical histories showed that 4 (28.5%) of the 14 patients had a previous diagnosis of meningitis. Two patients (14.3%) had evidence of inner ear malformations, and 2 patients (14.3%) had history of asthma. CONCLUSION: Our cochlear revision series are comparable to what is reported in the literature. However, an unexpected relationship between meningitis was identified among our soft failure group. More than one-quarter carried a history of meningitis. Moreover, nearly one-half of all soft failures had some form of inflammatory derangement. We used the soft failure criteria established by the 2005 Consensus Development Conference for our population analysis. Although we agree that audiologic data often are essential for defining soft failure, multiple patients in our series experienced pain that was severe enough to prevent a complete audiometric evaluation, therefore not rigorously fulfilling the criteria set forth by the 2005 Consensus. However, because their symptoms resolved after reimplantation, and their speech performance restored, we propose modifications of the current definition of 'soft failure' to include these patients
Psychometric validity of the Cochlear Implant Function Index (CIFI): a quality of life assessment tool for adult cochlear implant users
Objective The Cochlear Implant Function Index (CIFI) is created to assess adult cochlear implant (CI) auditory effectiveness in real world situations. Our objective is to evaluate the CIFI as a reliable psychometric tool to assess 1) reliance on visual assistance, 2) telephone use, 3) communication at work, 4) 'hearing' in noise, 5) in groups, and 6) in large room settings. Study Design Based upon Guttman scaling properties, the CIFI elicits implanted respondent's functional level with auditory independence from Level 1 (still requiring signing) to level 4 (without any help beyond CI). A blinded, retrospective questionnaire is anonymously answered by cochlear implant recipients. Setting CI centers of tertiary care medical centers, CI support group, and an interactive web page of a hearing and speech center in a large metropolitan region. Subjects 245 respondents from a varied adult CI population implanted for one month to 19 years prior to answering the questionnaire. Intervention An assessment tool of CI function. Main Outcome Measure A coefficient of reproducibility (CR) for the Guttman scale format equal or greater than 0.90, indicating good scalability. Results CR in the CIFI was above 0.90. Effective scalability and mean scores from 2.5 to 3.5 for the six areas examined (1.00-4.00) were achieved. Conclusion The psychometric properties of this user friendly survey demonstrate consistently good scalability. Based on these findings, the CIFI provides a validated tool that can be used for systematic comparisons between groups of patients or for follow-up outcomes in patients who use cochlear implants. Further study is indicated to correlate CIFI scores with sound and speech perception scores.
Reconstruction of congenital microtia-atresia: outcomes with the Medpor/bone-anchored hearing aid-approach
Ideal surgery for congenital microtia-atresia would offer excellent cosmetic and hearing rehabilitation, with minimal morbidity. Classic approaches require multiple procedures, including rib cartilage harvest and aural atresia repair. Our facial plastic and otologic team approach incorporates a high-density porous polyethylene (Medpor, Porex Surgical, Newnan, GA) auricular framework, followed by single-stage bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantation. We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and morbidity of this 2-stage dual system approach. A prospective database of microtia patients was used to identify patients undergoing combined Medpor/BAHA auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation between 2003 and 2006. The first stage involves placement of a Medpor framework beneath a temporoparietal fascia flap, followed by a second-stage procedure for lobule transposition and BAHA implantation. Twenty-five patients (28 ears) were evaluated. Aesthetic quality of the implants was excellent, with a high degree of framework detail visible, and a postauricular crease created in all patients. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. There were no major Medpor complications such as infection, extrusion, loss of implant, or flap necrosis, and a 10.7% incidence of minor complications requiring operative revision. BAHA significantly improved hearing in all patients, with a complication rate of 31.8%, mainly skin overgrowth and cellulitis. The Medpor/BAHA dual plastic-otologic approach to microtia-atresia has produced excellent cosmetic results and hearing outcomes, which compare favorably to traditional microtia-atresia repair. This is a 2-stage aesthetic and functional protocol with an acceptably low rate of complications, which safely and efficiently achieves both aesthetic and functional goals
Single-stage BAHA implantation in adults and children: is it safe?
OBJECTIVE: Most surgeons perform pediatric bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantation in two stages. This study examined the safety and efficacy of single-stage BAHA implantation in adults and children. METHODS: Retrospective review of 32 ears: 18 pediatric (ages 6 to 13 years) and 14 adult patients who underwent single-stage BAHA surgery between 2002 and 2006. RESULTS: A total of eight (25%) ears experienced complications. Overall, four (13%) ears required revision in the operating room. In the pediatric group, there were three (16.7%) ears with skin complications; two required operative revision. In the adult group, there were five (36%) ears with skin complications; two required operative revision. CONCLUSIONS: In both adults and children, the single-stage technique for BAHA implantation is safe and efficient. All complications were related to skin reaction. Safety profiles for 1- and 2-stage surgery are similar, although the single-stage procedure is more cost effective, avoids a second procedure, and provides for earlier hearing rehabilitation
Surgical management of complications after hearing aid fitting [Case Report]
OBJECTIVES: Standard procedures for hearing aid fitting performed in accordance with established guidelines are well tolerated, safe, and effective. In this article, we present unusual complications after hearing aid fitting that required surgical management. METHODS: Four otologists at a major university center with a combined 65 years of experience performed a retrospective analysis of their surgical practice. Six patients were identified that had encountered severe complications from improper earmold fitting that required surgical intervention. RESULTS: One patient had a perforation of the tympanic membrane with earmold material found to have migrated into the middle ear cleft. The tympanic membrane healed spontaneously, resulting in persistent otalgia and a maximum air-bone gap. The earmold cast was successfully removed by means of a tympanomastoidectomy. Two patients with presbycusis and normal ear canals developed eardrum perforations and conductive hearing deficits. In both patients, earmold material was found partially occupying the middle ear cleft and removed by way of a transcanal approach. Three patients with prior canal wall down mastoidectomy defects and narrow external ear canals required microtoscopy under general anesthesia or canaloplasty for removal of impacted material. CONCLUSION: Proper fitting of hearing aids performed by well-trained medical professionals results in a very low incidence of significant complications. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with impaction of earmold material in the middle ear or mastoid bowl may occur and can be successfully managed by standard otologic surgical techniques