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Hip-preserving surgery for nonunion about the hip

Egol, Kenneth A; Walden, Timothy; Gabor, Jonathan; Leucht, Philip; Konda, Sanjit R
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Nonunions about the hip occur as a result of femoral neck, intertrochanteric, and certain subtrochanteric fractures. Treatment of a hip fracture nonunion allows for the choice between hip preservation or arthroplasty. The goal of this study was to examine outcomes of hip-preservation nonunion surgery METHODS: Patients who underwent hip preservation for a fracture nonunion of the femoral neck, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric region to 1 cm below the lesser trochanter over a 10-year period were identified in our nonunion registry. Patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year. Functional outcomes were recorded at follow-up visits. For comparison regarding surgical and hospital outcomes, a group of 23 patients who underwent conversion total hip arthroplasties (cTHA) at the same academic medical center was reviewed. Quality measures such as length of stay, reoperation, and complications were collected. All statistics analysis utilized IBM SPSS 25 (Armonk, NY) RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent 30 hip-preserving nonunion surgeries were analyzed and compared with 23 cTHA patients. Twenty-nine nonunions went on to heal (average time to union 6.3 months). There was improvement in functional outcome scores for the hip preservation group between baseline and latest follow-up (p < 0.001). Reoperation was required in five patients (17%), including four failed to heal and required a second repair to gain union and one failure that was converted to THA rather than attempt a second nonunion repair. Hip preservation failures were older than those that healed with the index treatment (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference in hospital length of stay, complication rate, or need for reoperation when compared to cTHA group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hip-preserving surgery is an option that should be considered for patients with nonunion of fractures about the hip. The rates of complications (20.3 vs 17.3%) and reoperation (16.7 vs 17.3%) were equivalent to conversion THA. Excellent outcomes can be achieved in terms of radiographic union and function with hip preservation.
PMID: 33635401
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4894702

Quality differences in multifragmentary pertrochanteric fractures [OTA 31A2.2 and 31A2.3] treated with short and long cephalomedullary nails

Parola, Rown; Maseda, Meghan; Herbosa, Christopher G; Konda, Sanjit R; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study compares demographics, outcomes, and costs of patients with similar multifragmentary pertrochanteric (MP) fracture patterns treated with either a short or long cephalomedullary nail (CMN) to determine treatment efficacy and value during hospital admission. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Level-1 trauma center. PATIENTS/METHODS:384 patients who presented with a MP fracture [AO/OTA 31A2.2 and 31A2.3] at 1 of 3 hospitals within a single academic medical center. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Surgical treatment with either short or long CMN Main outcome measurements: Operative time, in-hospital complications, discharge disposition, procedural and total costs of admission. RESULTS:Sixty-nine (18.0%) patients were treated with long CMNs compared to 315 patients treated with short CMNs. Patients treated with long CMNs had increased rates of transfusions of allogenic packed red blood cells (52.2% vs 34.0%, p = 0.005), discharge to rehabilitation facilities (91.3% vs 80.3%, p = 0.030), and had costlier hospital stays ($28,632.50 vs $23,024.86, p = 0.014) with longer (74.9 vs 52.3 min, p <0.001), costlier procedures and implants ($12,090.31 vs $9,647.41, p = 0.014) compared to patients treated with short CMNs. There were no differences in timing of radiographic healing, rates of readmission, nonunion, screw cut out, fixation failure, or peri‑implant fracture. CONCLUSIONS:Short and long CMNs are equally suitable implants for the most unstable intertrochanteric fracture patterns. Short CMNs correlate with reduced operative time and costs with non-inferior in-hospital complication rates, hospital quality measures, and less frequent rehabilitation facility discharges. Given the similar long-term outcomes demonstrated here and in the literature, this data suggests nail length selection should be driven more by cost and discharge considerations for MP fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:level III.
PMID: 35643558
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 5235992

Autogenous iliac crest bone grafting for tibial nonunions revisited: does approach matter?

Konda, Sanjit R; Littlefield, Connor P; Carlock, Kurtis D; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:Tibial nonunion remains a considerable burden for patients and the surgeons who treat them. In recent years, alternatives to autogenous grafts for the treatment of tibial nonunions have been sought. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the treatment of tibial shaft nonunions. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:Sixty-nine patients were identified who underwent ICBG for repair of atrophic or oligotrophic tibial nonunion and had complete data with at least one year of follow-up (mean 27.9 months). Surgical treatments consisted of revision/supplemental fixation ± ICBG. Surgical approaches for graft placement were either posterolateral (PL), anterolateral (AL), or direct medial (DM). Healing status, time to union, postoperative pain, and functional outcomes were assessed. RESULTS:Bony union was achieved by 97.1% (67/69) of patients at a mean time of 7.8 ± 3.2 months postoperatively. There was no significant difference in mean time to union between the three surgical approach groups: (PL (44.9%) = 7.3 months, AL (20.3%) = 9.2 months, DM (34.8%) = 7.6 months; p = 0.22). Intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of nonunion surgery were positive in 27.5% of patients (19/69). Positive cultures were associated with need for secondary surgery as 8/19 patients (42.1%) with positive cultures required re-operation. Two out of four patients that developed iliac donor site hematomas/infections requiring washout had positive intraoperative cultures as well. There was no difference in final SMFA among the three surgical approach groups. CONCLUSIONS:Autogenous ICBG remains the gold standard in the management of persistent tibial nonunions regardless of surgical approach. There is a small risk for complication at the iliac crest donor site. Given the high union rate, autogenous iliac crest bone grafting for tibial nonunion remains the gold standard for this difficult condition. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 33417030
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4739432

Outpatient lower extremity fracture surgery: should we be concerned?

Shields, Charlotte N; Solasz, Sara; Gonzalez, Leah J; Tong, Yixuan; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With rising healthcare costs and insurance push against non-emergent hospital admission, lower extremity fracture treatment is shifting toward outpatient procedures over inpatient hospitalizations. This study compares outcomes for fractures treated as inpatient versus outpatient. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of lower extremity fracture patients. We collected demographics, injury information, hospital course, and complication data. Length of stay was categorized as "inpatient" and "outpatient" based a 24-h hospital stay cutoff. Data analysis included differences between cohorts with regards to readmissions and complications. RESULTS:We identified 229 patients who met inclusion criteria. Inpatient versus outpatient status was predictive of in-hospital complications; however, inpatient versus outpatient status did not predict 1-year readmission. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Outpatient surgery is safe and effective. As the population increases and ages, low-risk surgeries should be considered for outpatient rather than inpatient stays to lower costs, save resources, and reduce complications.
PMID: 34101006
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4906072

Transfusion timing relative to surgery does not impact outcomes in hip fracture patients

Parola, Rown; Konda, Sanjit R; Perskin, Cody R; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of blood transfusion timing in hip fracture patients. METHODS:A consecutive series of hip fracture patients 55 years and older who required a blood transfusion during hospitalization were reviewed for demographic, injury, clinical outcome, and cost information. A validated risk predictive score (STTGMA) was calculated for each patient. Patients were stratified to preoperative, intraoperative, or postoperative first transfusion cohorts. The intraoperative and postoperative cohorts were matched by STTGMA, sex, and procedure to the preoperative cohort. Baseline patient characteristics and outcomes were compared before and after matching. RESULTS:Prior to matching, the preoperative cohort was more often male (p < 0.001) with increased Charlson comorbidity index (p = 0.012), ASA class (p < 0.002), STTGMA (p < 0.001), total transfused volume (p = 0.002), incidence of inpatient mortality (p = 0.045), myocardial infarction (p = 0.005) and cardiac arrest (p = 0.014). After matching, the preoperative cohort had increased total transfused volume (p = 0.015) and decreased pneumonia incidence (p = 0.040). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Matching STTGMA score, sex, and procedure results in non-inferior outcomes among hip fracture patients receiving preoperative first blood transfusions compared to intraoperative and postoperative transfusions.
PMID: 34106338
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4899942

Intra-articular Distal Humerus Fractures: Parallel Versus Orthogonal Plating

Haglin, Jack M; Kugelman, David N; Lott, Ariana; Belayneh, Rebekah; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A
PMID: 35645650
ISSN: 1556-3316
CID: 5232592

Nail plate combination in the upper extremity: surgical technique and clinical application

Ganta, Abhishek; Wang, Charles; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A
Nail plate constructs (NPC) have shown promising results in complex lower extremity peri-articular fractures as well as in peri-prosthetic fractures. The combination of both implants allows for improved mechanical stability and immediate weight bearing. The use of NPC has not been described in the upper extremity in the literature. We herein describe potential indications and surgical technique for NPC usage for complex upper extremity trauma and reconstruction.
PMID: 34009473
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4877252

Arterial Injury Portends Worse Soft Tissue Outcomes and Delayed Coverage in Open Tibial Fractures

Bi, Andrew S; Fisher, Nina D; Parola, Rown; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A; Konda, Sanjit R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To investigate if any injury to the three primary branches of the popliteal artery in open tibia fractures lead to increased soft-tissue complications, particularly in the area of the affected angiosome. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort comparative study. SETTING/METHODS:Two academic level one trauma centersPatients/Participants: Sixty-eight adult patients with open tibia fractures with a minimum one-year follow up. INTERVENTION/METHODS:N/A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Soft-tissue outcomes as measured by wound healing (delayed healing, dehiscence, or skin breakdown) and fracture related infection (FRI) at time of final follow-up. RESULTS:Eleven (15.1%) tibia fractures had confirmed arterial injuries via CTA (7), direct intraoperative visualization (3), intraoperative angiogram (3). Ten (91.0%) were treated with ligation and 1 (9.1%) was directly repaired by vascular surgery. Ultimately, 6 (54.5%) achieved radiographic union and 4 (36.4%) required amputation performed at a mean of 2.62 ± 2.04 months, with one patient going on to nonunion diagnosed at 10 months. Patients with arterial injury had significantly higher rates of wound healing complications, FRI, nonunion, amputation rates, return to the OR, and increased time to coverage or closure. After multivariate regression, arterial injury was associated with higher odds of wound complications, FRI, and nonunion. Ten (90.9%) patients with arterial injury had open wounds in the region of the compromised angiosome, with 7 (70%) experiencing wound complications, 6 (60%) FRIs, and 3 (30%) undergoing amputation. CONCLUSIONS:Arterial injuries in open tibia fractures with or without repair, have significantly higher rates of wound healing complications, FRI, delayed time to final closure, and need for amputation. Arterial injuries appear to effect wound healing in the affected angiosome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 35324550
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5206742

Preoperative echocardiogram does not increase time to surgery in hip fracture patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention

Assefa, Tensae; Esper, Garrett; Cavaleri, Salvatore; Furgiuele, David; Konda, Sanjit; Egol, Kenneth
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the effect of preoperative echocardiogram on time to surgery and (2) assess the outcomes of patients with a previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:Demographic, clinical, quality and cost data were obtained and a validated risk predictive tool (STTGMA) was calculated for each of a consecutive series of hip fracture patients. Comparative analyses of patients who had an echocardiogram prior to surgery or a PCI prior to hospitalization were performed. RESULTS:Between 2014 and 2020, 2625 patients presented to our institution with a hip fracture. From this cohort 471 patients underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), 30 who had a history of a PCI, and an additional 26 who had a history of PCI but did not undergo a preoperative TTE. Those undergoing a preoperative TTE had similar time (days) to surgery (1.73 vs 1.77, p = 0.86) and 30-day mortality (4% vs 7%, p = 0.545) regardless of PCI history. PCI patients who underwent a preoperative TTE experienced increased rates of 1-year mortality (27% vs 10%, p = 0.007) and major complications (23% vs 12%, p = 0.08) compared to those without a PCI history. PCI patients undergoing a preoperative TTE had a similar time (days) to surgery (1.77 vs 1.48, .p = 0.397) compared to PCI patients without a preoperative TTE. Patients who underwent a preoperative TTE had higher rates of 90-day readmission (31.0% vs 8.0%, p = 0.047) and 1-year mortality (26.7% vs 3.8%, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS:Having a preoperative TTE does not affect surgical wait times in hip fracture patients regardless of PCI history, but it may not improve mortality outcomes or reduce postoperative complications in patients with a history of a PCI.
PMID: 35279771
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 5182392

No Differences Between White and Non-White Patients in Terms of Care Quality Metrics, Complications, and Death After Hip Fracture Surgery When Standardized Care Pathways are Used

Parola, Rown; Neal, William H; Konda, Sanjit R; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:Many initiatives by medical and public health communities at the national, state, and institutional level have been centered around understanding and analyzing critical determinants of population health with the goal of equitable and nondisparate care. In orthopaedic traumatology, several studies have demonstrated that race and socioeconomic status are associated with differences in care delivery and outcomes of patients with hip fractures. However, studies assessing the effectiveness of methods to address disparities in care delivery, quality metrics, and complications after hip fracture surgery are lacking. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE:(1) Are hospital quality measures (such as delay to surgery, major inpatient complications, intensive care unit admission, and discharge disposition) and outcomes (such as mortality during inpatient stay, within 30 days or within 1 year) similar between White and non-White patients at a single institution in the setting of a standardized hip fracture pathway? (2) What factors correlate with aforementioned hospital quality measures and outcomes under the standardized care pathway? METHODS:In this retrospective, comparative study, we evaluated the records of 1824 patients 55 years of age or older with hip fractures from a low-energy mechanism who were treated at one of four hospitals in our urban academic healthcare system, which includes an orthopaedic tertiary care hospital, from the initiation of a standardized care pathway in October 2014 to March 2020. The standardized 4-day hip fracture pathway is comprised of medicine comanagement of all patients and delineated tasks for doctors, nursing, social work, care managers, and physical and occupational therapy from admission to expected discharge on postoperative day 4. Of the 1824 patients, 98% (1787 of 1824) of patients who had their race recorded in the electronic medical record chart (either by communicating it to a medical provider or by selecting their race from options including White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian in a patient portal of the electronic medical record) were potentially eligible. A total of 14% (249 of 1787) of patients were excluded because they did not have an in-state address. Of the included patients, 5% (70 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 30 days and 22% (336 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 1 year. Two groups were established by including all patients selecting White as primary race into the White cohort and all other patients in the non-White cohort. There were 1111 White patients who were 72% (801) female with mean age 82 ± 10 years and 427 non-White patients who were 64% (271) female with mean age 80 ± 11 years. Univariate chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests of demographics were used to compare White and non-White patients and find factors to control for potentially relevant confounding variables. Multivariable regression analyses were used to control for important baseline between-group differences to (1) determine the correlation of White and non-White race on mortality, inpatient complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and discharge disposition and (2) assess the correlation of gender, socioeconomic status, insurance payor, and the Score for Trauma Triage in the Geriatric and Middle Aged (STTGMA) trauma risk score with these quality measures and outcomes. RESULTS:After controlling for gender, insurer, socioeconomic status and STTGMA trauma risk score, we found that non-White patients had similar or improved care in terms of mortality and rates of delayed surgery, ICU admission, major complications, and discharge location in the setting of the standardized care pathway. Non-White race was not associated with inpatient (odds ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.40 to 2.73]; p > 0.99), 30-day (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.48 to 1.83]; p > 0.99) or 1-year mortality (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.57 to 1.33]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was not associated with delay to surgery beyond 2 days (OR = 1.1 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.38]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was associated with less frequent ICU admissions (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42 to 0.85]; p = 0.03) and fewer major complications (OR 0.5 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.83]; p = 0.047). Non-White race was not associated with discharge to skilled nursing facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.78 to 1.30]; p > 0.99), acute rehabilitation facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.66 to 1.41]; p > 0.99), or home (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.29]; p > 0.99). Controlled factors other than White versus non-White race were associated with mortality, discharge location, ICU admission, and major complication rate. Notably, the STTGMA trauma risk score was correlated with all endpoints. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the context of a hip fracture care pathway that reduces variability from time of presentation through discharge, no differences in mortality, time to surgery, complications, and discharge disposition rates were observed beween White and non-White patients after controlling for baseline differences including trauma risk score. The pathway detailed in this study is one iteration that the authors encourage surgeons to customize and trial at their institutions, with the goal of providing equitable care to patients with hip fractures and reducing healthcare disparities. Future investigations should aim to elucidate the impact of standardized trauma care pathways through the use of the STTGMA trauma risk score as a controlled confounder or randomized trials in comparing standardized to individualized, surgeon-specific care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, therapeutic study.
PMID: 35238810
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5174562