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A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in young children with ADHD

Kratochvil, Christopher J; Vaughan, Brigette S; Stoner, Julie A; Daughton, Joan M; Lubberstedt, Brian D; Murray, Desiree W; Chrisman, Allan K; Faircloth, Melissa A; Itchon-Ramos, Nilda B; Kollins, Scott H; Maayan, Lawrence A; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kotler, Lisa A; Fried, Jane; March, John S
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 5- and 6-year-old children. METHODS: This was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine in 101 children with ADHD. Atomoxetine or placebo was flexibly titrated to a maximum dose of 1.8 mg/kg per day. The pharmacotherapist reviewed psychoeducational material on ADHD and behavioral-management strategies with parents during each study visit. RESULTS: Significant mean decreases in parent (P = .009) and teacher (P = .02) ADHD-IV Rating Scale scores were demonstrated with atomoxetine compared with placebo. A total of 40% of children treated with atomoxetine met response criteria (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale indicating much or very much improved) compared with 22% of children on placebo, which was not significant (P = .1). Decreased appetite, gastrointestinal upset, and sedation were significantly more common with atomoxetine than placebo. Although some children demonstrated a robust response to atomoxetine, for others the response was more attenuated. Sixty-two percent of subjects who received atomoxetine were moderately, markedly, or severely ill according to the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale at study completion. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial of atomoxetine in children as young as 5 years. Atomoxetine generally was well tolerated and reduced core ADHD symptoms in the children on the basis of parent and teacher reports. Reductions in the ADHD-IV Rating Scale scores, however, did not necessarily translate to overall clinical and functional improvement, as demonstrated on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale. Despite benefits, the children in the atomoxetine group remained, on average, significantly impaired at the end of the study
PMID: 21422081
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 133352

Pharmacological therapies for bulimia nervosa

Chapter by: Brown, Amanda Joelle; Kotler, Lisa A; Walsh, B. Timothy
in: Evidence based treatment for eating disorders : children, adolescents, and adults by Dancyger IF; Fornari VM [Eds]
New York : Nova Science, 2009
pp. ?-?
ISBN: 1606923102
CID: 4986

Frontostriatal connectivity and its role in cognitive control in parent-child dyads with ADHD

Casey, B J; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buhle, Jason; Liston, Conor; Davidson, Matthew C; Tonev, Simon T; Spicer, Julie; Niogi, Sumit; Millner, Alexander J; Reiss, Allan; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Greenhill, Laurence L; Shafritz, Keith M; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A; Jarrett, Matthew A; Glover, Gary
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have linked the structure and function of frontostriatal circuitry to cognitive control deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have examined the role of white matter tracts between these structures or the extent to which white matter tract myelination and regularity correlate in family members with the disorder. METHOD: Functional imaging maps from a go/nogo task were used to identify portions of the ventral prefrontal cortex and striatum involved in suppressing an inappropriate action (i.e., cognitive control) in 30 parent-child dyads (N=60), including 20 dyads (N=40) with ADHD and 10 dyads (N=20) without ADHD. An automated fiber-tracking algorithm was used to delineate white matter fibers adjacent to these functionally defined regions based on diffusion tensor images. Fractional anisotropy, an index of white matter tract myelination and regularity derived from diffusion tensor images, was calculated to characterize the associations between white matter tracts and function. RESULTS: Fractional anisotropy in right prefrontal fiber tracts correlated with both functional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus and caudate nucleus and performance of a go/nogo task in parent-child dyads with ADHD, even after controlling for age. Prefrontal fiber tract measures were tightly associated between ADHD parents and their children. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings support previous studies suggesting heritability of frontostriatal structures among individuals with ADHD and suggest disruption in frontostriatal white matter tracts as one possible pathway to the disorder
PMID: 17974939
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 79272

ADHD- and medication-related brain activation effects in concordantly affected parent-child dyads with ADHD

Epstein, Jeffery N; Casey, B J; Tonev, Simon T; Davidson, Matthew C; Reiss, Allan L; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Greenhill, Laurence L; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A; Jarrett, Matthew A; Spicer, Julie
BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological abnormalities and response to stimulant medication. METHOD: A group of concordantly diagnosed ADHD parent-child dyads was compared to a matched sample of normal parent-child dyads. In addition, ADHD dyads were administered double-blind methylphenidate and placebo in a counterbalanced fashion over two consecutive days of testing. Frontostriatal function was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a go/no-go task. RESULTS: Youths and adults with ADHD showed attenuated activity in fronto-striatal regions. In addition, adults with ADHD appeared to activate non-fronto-striatal regions more than normals. A stimulant medication trial showed that among youths, stimulant medication increased activation in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions. In adults with ADHD, increases in activation were observed in the striatum and cerebellum, but not in prefrontal regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends findings of fronto-striatal dysfunction to adults with ADHD and highlights the importance of frontostriatal and frontocerebellar circuitry in this disorder, providing evidence of an endophenotype for examining the genetics of ADHD
PMID: 17714375
ISSN: 0021-9630
CID: 79274

Venlafaxine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Findling, Robert L; Greenhill, Laurence L; McNamara, Nora K; Demeter, Christine A; Kotler, Lisa A; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Myers, Carolyn; Reed, Michael D
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this pilot study were to explore the changes in symptom severity, tolerability, and the pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine treatment in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was a 2-week, open-label, outpatient trial of venlafaxine in children and adolescents, ages 5-17 years, with ADHD. Three dosing strata, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg per day, were examined. ADHD symptom severity and improvement assessments included the ADHD Rating Scale (ARS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). During this study, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), norepinephrine, and serotonin concentrations were obtained. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants (33 males) were treated in this trial. Overall, parent-completed and teacher-completed ARS-IV total scores showed a statistically significant positive change at the end of the study when compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Significant increases in plasma venlafaxine concentrations were observed at day 15 when compared to day 8 (p = 0.04). In addition, plasma norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations were found to be significantly decreased from baseline at end of study (p < 0.05). Four patients ended participation in the study prematurely: lost to follow up (n = 2), withdrawal of consent (n = 1), and worsening of ADHD symptoms after 8 days of treatment (n = 1). There were no discontinuations due to other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Venlafaxine appeared to offer some benefit and appears to be relatively safe for the short-term treatment of ADHD in this open-label trial. The pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine in youths are consistent with serotonergic and neuradrenergic modulation
PMID: 17822339
ISSN: 1044-5463
CID: 79273

Assessment and prevention of head motion during imaging of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Epstein, Jeffery N; Casey, B J; Tonev, Simon T; Davidson, Matthew; Reiss, Allan L; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Greenhill, Laurence L; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A; Jarrett, Matthew A; Spicer, Julie
The present study serves to detail the specific procedures for a mock scanner protocol, report on its use in the context of a multi-site study, and make suggestions for improving such protocols based on data acquired during study scanning. Specifically, a mock scanner compliance training protocol was used in a functional imaging study with a group of adolescents and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a matched sample of healthy children and adults. Head motion was measured during mock and actual scanning. Participants across groups exhibited excess motion (>2 mm) on 43% of runs during the mock scanner. During actual scanning, excessive motion was limited to 10% of runs. There was a clear task-correlated head motion during a go/no-go task that occurred even after the compliance training: participants had a tendency to respond with increased head motion immediately after committing an error. This study illustrates the need to (1) report data attrition due to head motion, (2) assess task-related motion, and (3) consider mock scanner training in functional imaging protocols
PMID: 17395436
ISSN: 0165-1781
CID: 79276

A pilot study of atomoxetine in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Kratochvil, Christopher J; Vaughan, Brigette S; Mayfield-Jorgensen, Michelle L; March, John S; Kollins, Scott H; Murray, Desiree W; Ravi, Hima; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kotler, Lisa A; Paykina, Natalya; Biggins, Patricia; Stoner, Julie
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine during acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 5 and 6 year olds. METHOD: Twenty two children (male n = 19, 86%) with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine for 8 weeks in a three-site, open-label pilot study. Dosing was flexible, with titration to a maximum of 1.8 mg/kg per day. Parent education on behavior management was provided as part of each pharmacotherapy visit. RESULTS: Subjects demonstrated a mean decrease of 20.68 points (SD = 12.80, p < 0.001)) on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV-RS) total score, 10.18 (SD = 7.48, p < 0.001) on the inattentive subscale and 10.50 (SD = 7.04, p < 0.001) on the hyperactive/impulsive subscale. Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) was improved in 82% of the children (95% CI, 66-98%) and Children's Global Assessment (CGAS) scores improved 18.91 points on average (SD = 12.20, p < 0.001). The mean final dose of atomoxetine was 1.25 mg/kg per day (SD = 0.35 mg/kg per day). Mood lability was the most commonly reported adverse event (n = 12, 54.5%). Eleven subjects (50%) reported decreased appetite and a mean weight loss of 1.04 kg (SD = 0.80 kg) (p < 0.001) was observed for the group. Vital sign changes were mild and not clinically significant. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events or lack of efficacy. CONCLUSION: Atomoxetine was generally effective for reducing core ADHD symptoms in the 5 and 6 year olds in this open-label study
PMID: 17489712
ISSN: 1044-5463
CID: 79275

Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents

Tanofsky-Kraff M; Haynos AF; Kotler LA; Yanovski SZ; Yanovski JA
The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children
PMID: 19030122
ISSN: 1573-4013
CID: 95743

Emerging psychotherapies for eating disorders

Kotler, Lisa A; Boudreau, Gillian S; Devlin, Michael J
Eating disorders are serious illnesses associated with significant medical and psychological sequelae and, in the case of anorexia nervosa, significant mortality. Established psychotherapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are effective for many patients with eating disorders. However, these treatments fail to yield full long-term remission in a substantial number of patients. There is a need for novel psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with eating disorders. The authors review three promising new treatment approaches in the field of eating disorders. Motivational enhancement therapy is based on established motivational principles for treating patients with addictive disorders and has been adapted as an early component of treatment for patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Dialectical behavioral therapy was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder and has been successfully applied to patients with binge eating. A novel form of family therapy, the Maudsley family treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa, has been newly manualized, and studies using this treatment are ongoing. For each treatment, the authors review the theory and techniques of treatment and then go on to review existing data on treatment efficacy
PMID: 15985966
ISSN: 1527-4160
CID: 79277

An open trial of fluoxetine for adolescents with bulimia nervosa

Kotler, Lisa A; Devlin, Michael J; Davies, Mark; Walsh, B Timothy
OBJECTIVE: This open clinical trial examined the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of treating adolescents who suffer from bulimia nervosa with fluoxetine. METHODS: Ten adolescents, ages 12-18 years received 8 weeks of fluoxetine 60 mg/day with supportive psychotherapy. Primary outcome measures included frequencies of binge eating and purging and ratings on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I). Secondary outcome measures included self-report measures of eating disorder, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Safety and tolerability of this dose of fluoxetine were also assessed. RESULTS: Average weekly binges decreased significantly from 4.1 +/- 3.8 to 0 (p < 0.01). Average weekly purges decreased significantly from 6.4 +/- 5.2 to 0.4 +/- 0.9 (p < 0.005). All patients improved on the CGI-I scale, with 20% rated as much improved, 50% improved, and 30% slightly improved. All subjects tolerated the 60-mg dose of fluoxetine, and there were no dropouts due to adverse effects from the medication. DISCUSSION: Fluoxetine is generally well tolerated and may be an effective treatment option for adolescents with bulimia nervosa
PMID: 14642021
ISSN: 1044-5463
CID: 79278