Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Training scientists as future industry leaders: teaching translational science from an industry executive's perspective

Lee, Gloria; Kranzler, Jay D; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle
PhDs and post-doctoral biomedical graduates, in greater numbers, are choosing industry based careers. However, most scientists do not have formal training in business strategies and venture creation and may find senior management positions untenable. To fill this training gap, "Biotechnology Industry: Structure and Strategy" was offered at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). The course focuses on the business aspects of translational medicine and research translation and incorporates the practice of business case discussions, mock negotiation, and direct interactions into the didactic. The goal is to teach scientists at an early career stage how to create solutions, whether at the molecular level or via the creation of devices or software, to benefit those with disease. In doing so, young, talented scientists can develop a congruent mindset with biotechnology/industry executives. Our data demonstrates that the course enhances students' knowledge of the biotechnology industry. In turn, these learned skills may further encourage scientists to seek leadership positions in the field. Implementation of similar courses and educational programs will enhance scientists' training and inspire them to become innovative leaders in the discovery and development of therapeutics.
PMID: 29657853
ISSN: 2059-268x
CID: 3042632

Role and rationale for the use of milnacipran in the management of fibromyalgia

Kranzler, Jay D; Gendreau, R Michael
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain which is often accompanied by multiple other symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbances, decreased physical functioning, and dyscognition. Due to these multiple symptoms, as well as high rates of comorbidity with other related disorders, patients with FM often report a reduced quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of FM is not completely understood, patients with FM experience pain differently from the general population, most likely due to dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system leading to both hyperalgesia and allodynia. In many patients with FM, this aberrant pain processing, or central sensitization, appears to involve decreased pain inhibition within the spinal tract, which is mediated by descending pathways that utilize serotonin, norepinephrine, and other neurotransmitters. The reduced serotonin and norepinephrine levels observed in patients with FM suggest that medications which increase the levels of these neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), may have clinically beneficial effects in FM and other chronic pain conditions. Milnacipran is an SNRI that has been approved for the management of FM. In clinical trials, treatment with milnacipran for up to 1 year has been found to improve the pain and other symptoms of FM. Because FM is characterized by multiple symptoms that all contribute to the decreased quality of life and ability to function, the milnacipran pivotal trials implemented responder analyses. These utilized a single composite endpoint to identify the proportion of patients who reported simultaneous and clinically significant improvements in pain, global disease status, and physical function. Other domains assessed during the milnacipran trials include fatigue, multidimensional functioning, mood, sleep quality, and patient-reported dyscognition. This review article provides information intended to help clinicians make informed decisions about the use of milnacipran in the clinical management of patients with FM. It draws primarily on results from 2 of the pivotal clinical trials that formed the basis of approval of milnacipran in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration.
PMID: 20520784
ISSN: 1176-6328
CID: 201362

Assessment of the test-retest reliability of laboratory polysomnography

Levendowski, Daniel J; Zack, Nadene; Rao, Srini; Wong, Keith; Gendreau, Michael; Kranzler, Jay; Zavora, Timothy; Westbrook, Philip R
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: When conducting a treatment intervention study, it is assumed that a level of reliability can be obtained from the measurement tool such that the outcome can be reasonably assessed. PURPOSE OF STUDY: Investigate the reliability of laboratory polysomnography, the gold standard for assessment of treatment outcomes for obstructive sleep apnea, at a 1-month interval. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a clinical trial of 118 patients recruited to assess the effects of a pharmaceutical treatment intervention, a subset of 20 patients designated as placebo controls completed two polysomnography studies, one at baseline and one at least one month later. RESULTS: The correlation between the overall Apnea/Hypopnea indices from the two polysomnography (PSG) studies was poor (r = 0.44) and the results were biased, with a mean increase of seven events per hour on night 2. Twenty-five percent of the subjects had an increase greater than 20 events/hour on night 2 and only 45% of participants had a night-to-night difference of < or =5 events/hour. The correlation between overall apnea indexes for nights 1 and 2 (r = 0.61) was improved, compared to the overall apnea/hypopnea indexes. The correlation in sleep efficiency across the two nights was relatively week (r = 0.52) but significant. The correlations between nights 1 and 2 for the percentage of time supine (r = 0.70) and the supine apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.69) were similar and highly significant. The correlation for the non-supine AHI was only 0.25 CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the reliability of a single-night PSG in measuring treatment outcome was compromised as a result of the large night-to-night variability of subjects' obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Studies employing the AHI as an outcome need to be adequately powered with respect to the inherent night-to-night variability in the measurement. When assessing treatment intervention outcomes, there may be benefit from the acquisition and averaging of multiple nights of data in order to mitigate the inherent night-to-night variability of OSA and improve the accuracy of the outcome assessment.
PMID: 18766393
ISSN: 1520-9512
CID: 690672

The efficacy and safety of milnacipran for treatment of fibromyalgia. a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Gendreau, R Michael; Rao, Srinivas G; Kranzler, Jay; Chen, Wei; Palmer, Robert H
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of milnacipran, a dual norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: A 27-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study compared milnacipran 100 and 200 mg/day with placebo in the treatment of 888 patients with FM. Two composite responder definitions were used to classify each patient's individual response to therapy. "FM responders" concurrently satisfied response criteria for improvements in pain (visual analog scale 24-h morning recall), patient global impression of change (PGIC), and physical functioning (SF-36 Physical Component Summary); while "FM pain responders" concurrently satisfied response criteria for improvements in pain and PGIC. RESULTS: At the primary endpoint, after 3-month stable dose treatment, a significantly higher percentage of milnacipran-treated patients met criteria as FM responders versus placebo (milnacipran 200 mg/day, p = 0.017; milnacipran 100 mg/day, p = 0.028). A significantly higher percentage of patients treated with milnacipran 200 mg/day also met criteria as FM pain responders versus placebo (p = 0.032). Significant pain reductions were observed after Week 1 with both milnacipran doses. At 15 weeks, milnacipran 200 mg/day led to significant improvements over placebo in pain (realtime, daily and weekly recall; all measures, p < 0.05), PGIC (p < 0.001), fatigue (p = 0.016), cognition (p = 0.025), and multiple SF-36 domains. Milnacipran was safe and well tolerated by the majority of patients during 27 weeks of treatment; nausea and headache were the most common adverse events. CONCLUSION: Milnacipran is safe and effective for the treatment of multiple symptoms of FM.
PMID: 19132781
ISSN: 0315-162x
CID: 690662

Two randomized placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

Marshall, Nathaniel S; Yee, Brendon J; Desai, Anup V; Buchanan, Peter R; Wong, Keith K H; Crompton, Renee; Melehan, Kerri L; Zack, Nadene; Rao, Srinivas G; Gendreau, R Michael; Kranzler, Jay; Grunstein, Ronald R
OBJECTIVE: Mirtazapine is an a2A antagonist and mixed 5-HT2/5-HT3 antagonist that has been proposed as a potential treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A small, randomized, controlled trial has previously found an approximate halving in the severity of OSA with daily doses of 4.5 and 15 mg. We aimed to confirm and extend these findings in 2 randomized placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trials. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of mirtazapine for OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 10-40/h). Study 1: 3-way crossover, dose-finding study testing the self-administration of mirtazapine (7.5, 15, 30, and/or 45 mg) or placebo 30 minutes prior to bedtime for 2 weeks at each dose. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 different dose-sequence groups, with each patient exposed to a maximum of 3 doses. Study 2: 3-arm, randomized, parallel-group trial of mirtazapine at 15 mg or mirtazapine 15 mg + Compound CD0012 or placebo for 4 weeks in 65 patients with OSA. RESULTS: Two patients withdrew from Study 1 after complaints of unacceptable lethargy. Fifteen patients were withdrawn from study 2, 7 after complaints of unacceptable lethargy or other side-effects. No measurement of sleep apnea improved due to mirtazapine in either study. Weight gain was significantly greater on mirtazapine than on placebo in both trials. CONCLUSIONS: Mirtazapine did not improve sleep apnea in either trial. Mirtazapine caused weight gain, which may further worsen OSA. Therefore, mirtazapine is not recommended for the treatment of OSA.
PMID: 18548827
ISSN: 0161-8105
CID: 690682

Understanding the fibromyalgia syndrome

Rao, Srinivas G; Gendreau, Judith F; Kranzler, Jay D
The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is the most frequent cause of chronic, widespread pain. This review, which is targeted at the psychiatry and psychopharmacology communities, summarizes the state-of-the-art as it relates to both the pathophysiology and treatment of FMS. Toward this end, the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways are summarized, followed by a review of the altered biology of pain processing, neurotransmitter function, and neuroendocrine systems in FMS. The categories of current drugs employed to treat the disorder are detailed, along with a critical review of the literature supporting such use.
PMID: 18227777
ISSN: 0048-5764
CID: 201372

Efficacy of milnacipran in patients with fibromyalgia

Gendreau, R Michael; Thorn, Michael D; Gendreau, Judy F; Kranzler, Jay D; Ribeiro, Saulo; Gracely, Richard H; Williams, David A; Mease, Philip J; McLean, Samuel A; Clauw, Daniel J
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common musculoskeletal condition characterized by widespread pain, tenderness, and a variety of other somatic symptoms. Current treatments are modestly effective. Arguably, the best studied and most effective compounds are tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). Milnacipran, a nontricyclic compound that inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine, may provide many of the beneficial effects of TCA with a superior side effect profile. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five patients with FM were randomly assigned in a 3:3:2 ratio to receive milnacipran twice daily, milnacipran once daily, or placebo for 3 months in a double-blind dose-escalation trial; 92% of twice-daily and 81% of once-daily participants achieved dose escalation to the target milnacipran dose of 200 mg. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was reduction of pain. Both the once- and twice-daily groups showed statistically significant improvements in pain, as well as improvements in global well being, fatigue, and other domains. Response rates for patients receiving milnacipran were equal in patients with and without comorbid depression, but placebo response rates were considerably higher in depressed patients, leading to significantly greater overall efficacy in the nondepressed group. CONCLUSION: In this Phase II study, milnacipran led to statistically significant improvements in pain and other symptoms of FM. The effect sizes were equal to those previously found with TCA, and the drug was generally well tolerated.
PMID: 16206355
ISSN: 0315-162x
CID: 201382

A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia

Vitton, Olivier; Gendreau, Michael; Gendreau, Judy; Kranzler, Jay; Rao, Srinivas G
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a systemic disorder of widespread pain which is thought to result from abnormal pain processing within the central nervous system. There are no currently approved treatments for this indication. Antidepressants appear, however, to be effective, especially those with an action on noradrenergic neurotransmission. The objective of the present study was to test the efficacy of the dual action noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, milnacipran, in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The 125 patients, who were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible dose escalation trial, were randomized to receive placebo or milnacipran for 4 weeks of dose escalation (up to 200 mg/day), followed by 8 weeks at a constant dose. The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran for the treatment of pain and associated symptoms such as fatigue, depressed mood and sleep. 75% of milnacipran-treated patients reported overall improvement, compared with 38% in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, 37% of twice daily milnacipran-treated patients reported at least 50% reduction in pain intensity, compared with 14% of placebo-treated patients (p < 0.05). 84% of all milnacipran patients escalated to the highest dose (200 mg/day) with no tolerability issues. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity, and transient in duration. These results suggest that milnacipran may have the potential to relieve not only pain but several of the other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia.
PMID: 15378666
ISSN: 0885-6222
CID: 690652

Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity

Vaishnavi, S Neil; Nemeroff, Charles B; Plott, Susan J; Rao, Srinivas G; Kranzler, Jay; Owens, Michael J
BACKGROUND: Though selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have revolutionized the field of psychiatry with demonstrated efficacy in affective and anxiety disorders with minimal side effects, norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors may provide efficacy similar to tricyclic antidepressants without the adverse side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressants. METHODS: The affinity and selectivity of milnacipran, duloxetine, venlafaxine, citalopram, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline were determined for the human serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transporters. RESULTS: Both milnacipran and duloxetine were potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine uptake. Unlike duloxetine and venlafaxine, milnacipran appears serotonin transporter selective in binding (ratio = 2.61) and norepinephrine transporter selective in uptake (ratio =.45). CONCLUSIONS: Milnacipran's binding and uptake inhibition profile more closely resembles that of the tricyclic antidepressants than that of duloxetine. Whether these differences observed in vitro manifest themselves in vivo is not clear.
PMID: 14744476
ISSN: 0006-3223
CID: 690692

The psychopharmacology of fibromyalgia: a drug development perspective

Kranzler, Jay D; Gendreau, Judith F; Rao, Srinivas G
The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is the most frequent cause of chronic widespread pain. In this review, we summarize the state of the art on the syndrome and its pathophysiology, with an emphasis on identifying bases for the development of novel therapies. Toward this end, the anatomy and physiology of pain pathways are summarized, followed by a review of the altered biology of pain processing, neurotransmitter function, and neuroendocrine systems in FMS. The categories of drugs currently employed to treat the disorder are detailed, along with a critical review of the literature supporting such use. Throughout the article, FMS is compared with and related to both major depressive disorder and neuropathic pain, conditions that may share some common biological processes with FMS but for which new drug discovery efforts are significantly more active due to the more established nature of these diagnoses.
PMID: 12397854
ISSN: 0048-5764
CID: 201392