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A Taxonomy of Hospital-Based Addiction Care Models: a Scoping Review and Key Informant Interviews

Englander, Honora; Jones, Amy; Krawczyk, Noa; Patten, Alisa; Roberts, Timothy; Korthuis, P Todd; McNeely, Jennifer
BACKGROUND:There is pressing need to improve hospital-based addiction care. Various models for integrating substance use disorder care into hospital settings exist, but there is no framework for describing, selecting, or comparing models. We sought to fill that gap by constructing a taxonomy of hospital-based addiction care models based on scoping literature review and key informant interviews. METHODS:Methods included a scoping review of the literature on US hospital-based addiction care models and interventions for adults, published between January 2000 and July 2021. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 key informants experienced in leading, implementing, evaluating, andpracticing hospital-based addiction care to explore model characteristics, including their perceived strengths, limitations, and implementation considerations. We synthesized findings from the literature review and interviews to construct a taxonomy of model types. RESULTS:Searches identified 2,849 unique abstracts. Of these, we reviewed 280 full text articles, of which 76 were included in the final review. We added 8 references from reference lists and informant interviews, and 4 gray literature sources. We identified six distinct hospital-based addiction care models. Those classified as addiction consult models include (1) interprofessional addiction consult services, (2) psychiatry consult liaison services, and (3) individual consultant models. Those classified as practice-based models, wherein general hospital staff integrate addiction care into usual practice, include (4) hospital-based opioid treatment and (5) hospital-based alcohol treatment. The final type was (6) community-based in-reach, wherein community providers deliver care. Models vary in their target patient population, staffing, and core clinical and systems change activities. Limitations include that some models have overlapping characteristics and variable ways of delivering core components. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:A taxonomy provides hospital clinicians and administrators, researchers, and policy-makers with a framework to describe, compare, and select models for implementing hospital-based addiction care and measure outcomes.
PMID: 35534663
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 5214212

Outcomes of a NYC Public Hospital System Low-Threshold Tele-Buprenorphine Bridge Clinic at 1 Year

Tofighi, Babak; McNeely, Jennifer; Yang, Jenny; Thomas, Anil; Schatz, Daniel; Reed, Timothy; Krawczyk, Noa
PMID: 35481461
ISSN: 1532-2491
CID: 5205712

Buprenorphine Telehealth Treatment Initiation and Follow-Up During COVID-19 [Letter]

Samuels, Elizabeth A; Khatri, Utsha G; Snyder, Hannah; Wightman, Rachel S; Tofighi, Babak; Krawczyk, Noa
PMID: 34981357
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 5106962

Opioid treatment program safety measures during the COVID-19 pandemic: a statewide survey

Bandara, Sachini; Maniates, Hannah; Hulsey, Eric; Smith, Jennifer S; DiDomenico, Ellen; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Saloner, Brendan; Krawczyk, Noa
BACKGROUND:Opioid treatment programs (OTPs) serve as daily essential services for people with opioid use disorder. This study seeks to identify modifications to operations and adoption of safety measures at Pennsylvania OTPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS:A 25-min online survey to clinical and administrative directors at all 103 state-licensed OTPs in Pennsylvania was fielded from September to November 2020. Survey domains included: 1) changes to services, client volume, hours and staffing during the COVID-19 pandemic 2) types of services modifications 3) safety protocols to reduce COVID-19 transmission 4) challenges to operations during the pandemic. RESULTS:Forty-seven directors responded, for a response rate of 45%. Almost all respondents reported making some service modification (96%, n = 43). Almost half (47%, n = 21) of respondents reported reductions in the number of clients served. OTPs were more likely to adopt safety protocols that did not require significant funding, such as limiting the number of people entering the site (100%, n = 44), posting COVID-safety information (100%, n = 44), enforcing social distancing (98%, n = 43), and increasing sanitation (100%, n = 44). Only 34% (n = 14) of OTPS provided N95 masks to most or all staff. Respondents reported that staff's stress and negative mental health (86%, n = 38) and staff caregiving responsibilities (84%, n = 37) during the pandemic were challenges to maintaining OTP operations. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:OTPs faced numerous challenges to operations and adoption of safety measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Funding mechanisms and interventions to improve adoption of safety protocols, staff mental health as well as research on patient experiences and preferences can inform further OTP adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic and future emergency planning.
PMID: 35354460
ISSN: 1472-6963
CID: 5201182

Informal coping strategies among people who use opioids during COVID-19: A thematic analysis of Reddit forums

Arshonsky, Josh; Krawczyk, Noa; Bunting, Amanda M; Frank, David; Friedman, Samuel R; Bragg, Marie A
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed how people seeking to reduce opioid use access treatment services and navigate efforts to abstain from using opioids. Social distancing policies have drastically reduced access to many forms of social support, but they may have also upended some perceived barriers to reducing or abstaining from opioid use. OBJECTIVE:This qualitative study aimed to identify informal coping strategies for reducing and abstaining from opioid use among Reddit users who have posted in opioid-related subreddits at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS:We extracted data from two major opioid-related subreddits. Thematic data analysis was used to evaluate subreddit posts dated from March 5, 2020 to May 13, 2020 that referenced COVID-19 and opioid use, resulting in a final sample of 300 posts that were coded and analyzed. RESULTS:Of the 300 subreddit posts, 100 discussed at least one type of informal coping strategy. Those strategies included: psychological and behavioral coping skills, adopting healthy habits, and using substances to manage withdrawal symptoms. Twelve subreddit posts explicitly mentioned using social distancing as an opportunity for cessation or reduction of opioid use. CONCLUSIONS:Reddit discussion forums provided a community for people to share strategies for reducing opioid use and support others during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research needs to assess the impact of COVID-19 on opioid use behaviors, especially during periods of limited treatment access and isolation, as these can inform future efforts in curbing the opioid epidemic and other substance related harms.
PMID: 35084345
ISSN: 2561-326x
CID: 5154652

HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Testing and Treatment Services in Specialty Treatment Facilities That Offer Medication for Opioid Use Disorder in the US

Patel, Eshan U; Genberg, Becky L; Zhu, Xianming; Krawczyk, Noa; Mehta, Shruti H; Tobian, Aaron A R
PMID: 35191936
ISSN: 1538-3598
CID: 5173972

Shifting Medication Treatment Practices in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Statewide Survey of Pennsylvania Opioid Treatment Programs

Krawczyk, Noa; Maniates, Hannah; Hulsey, Eric; Smith, Jennifer S; DiDomenico, Ellen; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Saloner, Brendan; Bandara, Sachini
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We sought to understand how opioid treatment programs (OTPs) adapted OTP operations to the COVID-19 pandemic and new federal regulations around methadone and buprenorphine. METHODS:In fall 2020, we conducted an online survey of all 103 OTPs licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs, including clinical directors. Survey domains included changes to methadone take-home and telehealth practices; overdose and diversion prevention tactics; perceptions regarding how such changes influence patient well-being; and financial/operational concerns related to the new policies and practices. We calculated descriptive statistics and conducted Chi-square test to test for differences between not-for-profit versus for-profit and large versus small OTPs. RESULTS:Forty-seven percent (46%) OTPs responded to the survey. 10% and 25%, respectively, endorsed offering telephone and video-based telemedicine buprenorphine induction. Sixty-six percent endorsed extending take-home supplies of methadone, but most indicated that these extensions applied to a minority of their patients. Most respondents agreed that provision of buprenorphine via telehealth and extended take-home methadone reduced patient burden in accessing medications and prevented exposure to COVID-19, while not significantly increasing risk of overdose. We did not find major differences in COVID-19 practice modifications by nonprofit status or size of OTP. CONCLUSIONS:In Pennsylvania, the COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid changes in provision of opioid treatment services. Findings on relatively low uptake of longer methadone take-home regimens and virtual buprenorphine initiation despite general support for these practices imply a need to further develop guidelines for best clinical practices and understand/address barriers to their implementation.
PMID: 35165225
ISSN: 1935-3227
CID: 5175592

A Telemedicine Buprenorphine Clinic to Serve New York City: Initial Evaluation of the NYC Public Hospital System's Initiative to Expand Treatment Access during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Tofighi, Babak; McNeely, Jennifer; Walzer, Dalia; Fansiwala, Kush; Demner, Adam; Chaudhury, Chloe S; Subudhi, Ipsita; Schatz, Daniel; Reed, Timothy; Krawczyk, Noa
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical impact of telemedicine-based opioid treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone following the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS:Participants included in this retrospective analysis consisted of adult New York City residents with opioid use disorder eligible for enrollment in the NYC Health+Hospitals Virtual Buprenorphine Clinic between March and May 2020 (n = 78). Follow-up data were comprised of rates of retention in treatment at 2 months, referrals to community treatment, and induction-related events. RESULTS:During the initial 9 weeks of clinic operations, the clinic inducted 78 patients on to buprenorphine-naloxone and completed 252 visits. Patient referrals included non-NYC Health + Hospitals (n = 22, 28.2%) and NYC Health + Hospitals healthcare providers (n = 17, 21.8%), homeless shelter staff (n = 13, 16.7%), and the NYC Health + Hospitals jail reentry program in Rikers Island (n = 11, 14.1%). At 8 weeks, 42 patients remained in care (53.8%), 21 were referred to a community treatment program (26.9%), and 15 were lost to follow-up (19.2%). No patients were terminated from care due to disruptive behavior or suspicions of diversion or misuse of Buprenorphine. Adverse clinical outcomes were uncommon and included persistent withdrawal symptoms (n = 8, 4.3%) and one nonfatal opioid overdose (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS:Telemedicine-based opioid treatment and unobserved home induction on buprenorphine-naloxone offers a safe and feasible approach to expand the reach of opioid use disorder treatment, primary care, and behavioral health for a highly vulnerable urban population during an unprecedented natural disaster.
PMID: 33560696
ISSN: 1935-3227
CID: 4779622

The stigma system: How sociopolitical domination, scapegoating, and stigma shape public health

Friedman, Samuel R; Williams, Leslie D; Guarino, Honoria; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krawczyk, Noa; Hamilton, Leah; Walters, Suzan M; Ezell, Jerel M; Khan, Maria; Di Iorio, Jorgelina; Yang, Lawrence H; Earnshaw, Valerie A
Stigma is a fundamental driver of adverse health outcomes. Although stigma is often studied at the individual level to focus on how stigma influences the mental and physical health of the stigmatized, considerable research has shown that stigma is multilevel and structural. This paper proposes a theoretical approach that synthesizes the literature on stigma with the literature on scapegoating and divide-and-rule as strategies that the wealthy and powerful use to maintain their power and wealth; the literatures on racial, gender, and other subordination; the literature on ideology and organization in sociopolitical systems; and the literature on resistance and rebellion against stigma, oppression and other forms of subordination. we develop a model of the "stigma system" as a dialectic of interacting and conflicting structures and processes. Understanding this system can help public health reorient stigma interventions to address the sources of stigma as well as the individual problems that stigma creates. On a broader level, this model can help those opposing stigma and its effects to develop alliances and strategies with which to oppose stigma and the processes that create it.
PMID: 34115390
ISSN: 1520-6629
CID: 4900342

Utilization of Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Across US States: Relationship to Treatment Availability and Overdose Mortality

Krawczyk, Noa; Jent, Victoria; Hadland, Scott E; Cerdá, Magdalena
OBJECTIVE:Availability of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remains sparse. To date, there has been no national, state-by-state comparison of patient MOUD utilization relative to treatment availability and burden of overdose deaths. We aimed to quantify, for each state, the number of MOUD patients relative to (1) office-based buprenorphine providers and opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and (2) overdose deaths. METHODS:We conducted a spatial analysis of patients receiving MOUD from OTPs or buprenorphine providers in March 2017 across all 50 states and Washington, DC. For each state, we calculated the number of patients receiving MOUD from OTPs and buprenorphine prescriptions, relative to available OTPs and buprenorphine providers; as well as ratios of number of patients receiving MOUD relative to overdose deaths. RESULTS:In March 2017, 942,368 patients attended an OTP (410,288) or received a buprenorphine prescription (486,318). Patient to OTP ratio was highest in West Virginia, Delaware, Washington, DC, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Connecticut and Ohio, ranging from 91 to 193 patients per OTP in the first quintile to 430 to 648 in the fifth. Patient to buprenorphine provider ratio was highest in Kentucky and West Virginia, ranging from 3 to 7 patients per provider in the first quintile to 19 to 28 in the fifth. Median MOUD patients per overdose death was 21 (IQR:14.9-28.2). Of high overdose states, Washington, DC, New Jersey, and Ohio had the smallest number of patients on MOUD relative to deaths. CONCLUSIONS:High patient volume relative to treatment availability in overdose-burdened areas may indicate strain on MOUD providers and OTPs. Promoting greater utilization while expanding MOUD providers and programs is critical.
PMID: 35120067
ISSN: 1935-3227
CID: 5153932