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Diagnosing PFAPA during the COVID-19 era: clarity during quarantine [Letter]

Fiorito, Theresa; Akerman, Meredith; Noor, Asif; Krilov, Leonard R
PMID: 35190384
ISSN: 1468-2044
CID: 5172042

Increasing Rates of RSV Hospitalization among Preterm Infants: A Decade of Data

Kong, Amanda M; Winer, Isabelle H; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Diakun, David; Bloomfield, Adam; Gonzales, Tara; Fergie, Jaime; Goldstein, Mitchell; Krilov, Leonard R
OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) changed its policy on the use of respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis (RSV-IP) so that RSV-IP was no longer recommended for use among infants without other medical conditions born >29 weeks gestational age (wGA). This study examines 10-year trends in RSV-IP and RSV hospitalizations among term infants and preterm infants born at 29 to 34 wGA, including the 5 RSV seasons before and 5 RSV seasons after the AAP guidance change. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study of a convenience sample of infants less than 6 months of age during RSV season (November-March) born between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2019, who were born at 29 to 34 wGA (preterm) or >37 wGA (term) in the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid databases. We excluded infants with medical conditions that would independently qualify them for RSV-IP. We identified RSV-IP utilization along with RSV and all-cause bronchiolitis hospitalizations during each RSV season. A difference-in-difference model was used to determine if there was a significant change in the relative rate of RSV hospitalizations following the 2014 policy change. RESULTS:<0.001, respectively). Findings were similar for all-cause bronchiolitis hospitalizations. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: We found that the previously identified increase in RSV hospitalization rates among infants born at 29 to 34 wGA persisted for at least 5 years following the policy change. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:· Immunoprophylaxis rates decreased after the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines update.. · Rate of RSV hospitalization increased among preterm infants after the 2014 AAP guidelines update.. · Increase in RSV hospitalization persisted for at least 5 years after AAP guidelines update..
PMID: 34704241
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 5042452

Necrotizing Fasciitis [Editorial]

Noor, Asif; Krilov, Leonard R
PMID: 34599059
ISSN: 1526-3347
CID: 5173922

Unintended Consequences Following the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Change for Palivizumab Prophylaxis among Infants Born at Less than 29 Weeks' Gestation

Goldstein, Mitchell; Krilov, Leonard R; Fergie, Jaime; Brannman, Lance; Wade, Sally W; Kong, Amanda M; Ambrose, Christopher S
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare outpatient respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis (IP) use and relative RSV hospitalization (RSVH) rates for infants <29 weeks' gestational age (wGA) versus term infants before and after the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy change. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Infants were identified in the MarketScan Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid databases. Outpatient RSV IP receipt and relative <29 wGA/term hospitalization risks in 2012 to 2014 and 2014 to 2016 were assessed using rate ratios and a difference-in-difference model. RESULTS: = 0.2867). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: The 2014 policy change was associated with a decrease in RSV IP use and an increase in RSVH risk among otherwise healthy infants <29 wGA.
PMID: 32299107
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4383752

Implementing the 2016 American Academy of Pediatrics Guideline on Brief Resolved Unexplained Events: The Parent's Perspective

Brand, Donald A; Mock, Ann; Cohn, Elizabeth; Krilov, Leonard R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:A "brief resolved unexplained event" refers to sudden alterations in an infant's breathing, color, tone, or responsiveness that prompt the parent or caregiver to seek emergency medical care. A recently published clinical practice guideline encourages discharging many of these infants home from the emergency department if they have a benign presentation. The goal is to avoid aggressive inpatient investigations of uncertain benefit. The present research explored parents' reactions to the prospect of returning home with their infant following such an event. METHODS:The study used qualitative research methods to analyze semistructured, audio-recorded interviews of parents who had witnessed a brief resolved unexplained event between 2011 and 2015 and taken their infant to the emergency department of an academic teaching hospital. RESULTS:A total of 22 parent interviews were conducted. The infants included 8 boys and 14 girls aged 3.6 ± 3.5 months (mean ± SD). Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts revealed a near-universal apprehension about the child's well-being, ambivalence about the best course of action after the evaluation in the emergency department, and need for reassurance about the unlikelihood of a recurrence. Parents did not, however, answer the main research question with a single voice: attitudes toward the return-home scenario ranged from unthinkable to extreme relief. Two-thirds of parents expressed at least some reservations about the idea of returning home. CONCLUSIONS:Successful implementation of the 2016 guideline will require close attention to the parent's point of view. Otherwise, parental resistance is likely to compromise clinicians' best efforts.
PMID: 30399064
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 3455882

Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Communication Skills: A Role-Play Activity for Providers

Fiorito, Theresa M; Krilov, Leonard R; Nonaillada, Jeannine
Introduction:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cancers are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Routine vaccination against HPV is recommended for patients starting at age 9-12 years. Discussing this vaccine with parents of young children can be challenging for clinicians. Barriers include parental beliefs, strength and quality of clinician recommendations, physician knowledge of HPV disease and vaccines, and provider comfort levels with discussing sexuality. Methods:Our interactive workshop began with a predidactic role-play session addressing common concerns about the HPV vaccine where participants took turns playing a concerned parent or provider. We then gave a 30-minute didactic lecture and conducted a postdidactic role-play session to practice communication skills in promoting the HPV vaccine. All participants completed pre- and postintervention knowledge and skill self-assessments. Results:< .0001, average score based on a 5-point Likert scale). Discussion:An interactive workshop utilizing role-play supplemented by a didactic lecture was effective in improving participants' knowledge, communication skills, comfort levels, and confidence levels regarding HPV disease and vaccines. The workshop offers a practical and interpersonal approach to improving learners' skills in discussing the HPV vaccine with parents.
PMID: 33907710
ISSN: 2374-8265
CID: 4853282

Impact of the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics Policy on RSV Hospitalization in Preterm Infants in the United States

Goldstein, Mitchell; Fergie, Jaime; Krilov, Leonard R
Despite being a leading cause of hospitalization due to lower respiratory tract infections, the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is primarily supportive. Palivizumab is the only licensed immunoprophylaxis (IP) available for preventing severe RSV infection in high-risk populations including ≤ 35 weeks' gestational age (wGA) infants and children with chronic lung disease of prematurity or congenital heart disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published its IP recommendations since the approval of palivizumab. In 2014, the AAP stopped recommending RSV IP in 29-34 wGA infants without comorbidities and stated that RSV hospitalization (RSVH) risk in otherwise healthy ≥ 29 wGA infants and term infants was similar. Since then, experts in the field have debated the appropriateness of the 2014 policy change, and several real-world evidence studies at the national and regional levels in the US have examined the impact of the AAP policy on 29-34 wGA infants. Overall, these studies showed a significant decline in RSV IP use and a concurrent increase in RSVH risk among 29-34 wGA infants relative to term infants in the seasons after the 2014 policy change. A similar decrease in IP use and increase in RSVH risk was also observed among < 29 wGA infants relative to term infants after the 2014 policy change. This decrease could be an unintended consequence as < 29 wGA infants are an in-policy population recommended to receive RSV IP. According to the National Perinatal Association, strong evidence exists to support the use of RSV IP in all ≤ 32 wGA and 32-35 wGA infants with risk factors such as attending day care, having ≥ 1 school-aged siblings, twin or greater multiple gestation, younger age, and exposure to parental smoking. Until new preventive and treatment options become available, palivizumab can help prevent and mitigate RSV disease burden among high-risk preterm infants.
PMID: 33656649
ISSN: 2193-8229
CID: 4801522

Severity and Cost of RSV Hospitalization Among US Preterm Infants Following the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Change

Krilov, Leonard R; Forbes, Michael L; Goldstein, Mitchell; Wadhawan, Rajan; Stewart, Dan L
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) periodically publishes recommendations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis (IP) use in pediatric patients considered to be at highest risk for severe RSV infection. In 2014, for the first time, the AAP COID stopped recommending the use of RSV IP for otherwise healthy infants born at 29 weeks' gestational age (wGA) or later, stating that RSV hospitalization (RSVH) rates in this population are similar to those of term infants. Subsequently, epidemiological studies in the US at national and regional levels provided evidence of the impact of the policy change in 29-34 wGA infants. The results of these studies demonstrated a significant decrease in IP use after 2014 that was associated with an increased rate of RSVH in 29-34 wGA infants and an increase in morbidities. RSVH-related morbidities included pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, an increased need for mechanical ventilation, and an increase in the length of stay. After the change in recommendations, the costs of RSVH also rose among 29-34 wGA infants. The severity of the illness and expenses associated with RSVH were generally higher among 29-34 wGA infants of younger chronologic age compared with older preterm infants. Overall, these studies underscore that 29-34 wGA infants continue to be a high-risk pediatric population that could benefit from the protection provided by RSV IP. On the basis of these data, in 2018, the National Perinatal Association developed guidelines that recommended RSV IP for all ≤ 32 wGA infants and 32-35 wGA infants with additional risk factors. Re-evaluation of the AAP COID policy is warranted in light of these observations.
PMID: 33656650
ISSN: 2193-8229
CID: 4801532

Current State of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease and Management

Chatterjee, Archana; Mavunda, Kunjana; Krilov, Leonard R
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Substantial morbidity and socioeconomic burden are associated with RSV infection worldwide. Populations with higher susceptibility to developing severe RSV include premature infants, children with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) or congenital heart disease (CHD), elderly individuals aged > 65 years, and immunocompromised individuals. In the pediatric population, RSV can lead to long-term sequelae such as wheezing and asthma, which are associated with increased health care costs and reduced quality of life. Treatment for RSV is mainly supportive, and general preventive measures such as good hygiene and isolation are highly recommended. Although vaccine development for RSV has been a global priority, attempts to date have failed to yield a safe and effective product for clinical use. Currently, palivizumab is the only immunoprophylaxis (IP) available to prevent severe RSV in specific high-risk pediatric populations. Well-controlled, randomized clinical trials have established the efficacy of palivizumab in reducing RSV hospitalization (RSVH) in high-risk infants including moderate- to late-preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), in its 2014 policy, stopped recommending RSV IP use for ≥ 29 weeks' gestational age infants. Revisions to the AAP policy for RSV IP have largely narrowed the proportion of pediatric patients eligible to receive RSV IP and have been associated with an increase in RSVH and morbidity. On the other hand, after reviewing the recent evidence on RSV burden, the National Perinatal Association, in its 2018 clinical practice guidelines, recommended RSV IP use for a wider pediatric population. As the AAP recommendations drive insurance reimbursements for RSV IP, they should be revised to help further mitigate RSV disease burden.
PMID: 33660239
ISSN: 2193-8229
CID: 4801692

RSV Disease: Current Management and the Future of Treatment and Prevention

Krilov, Leonard R; Domachowske, Joseph B; Anderson, Evan J
PMID: 33660240
ISSN: 2193-8229
CID: 4801702