Three decades of collaboration through the Pediatric Heart Transplant Society Registry: A journey through registry data with a highlight on children with single ventricle anatomy
BACKGROUND:The Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS) Registry was founded 30 years ago as a collaborative effort among like-minded providers of this novel life-saving technique for children with end-stage heart failure. In the intervening decades, the data from the Registry have provided invaluable knowledge to the field of pediatric heart transplantation. This report of the PHTS Registry provides a comprehensive look at the data, highlighting both the longevity of the registry and one unique aspect of the PHTS registry, allowing for exploration into children with single ventricle anatomy. METHODS:The PHTS database was queried from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2019 to include pediatric (age < 18 years) patients listed for HT. For our analysis, we primarily analyzed patients by era. The early era was defined as children listed for HT from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2004; middle era January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009; and recent era January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019. Outcomes after listing and transplant, including mortality and morbidities, are presented as unadjusted for risk, but compared across eras. RESULTS:Since 1993, 11 995 children were listed for heart transplant and entered into the PHTS Registry with 9755 listed during the study period. The majority of listings occurred within the most recent era. Waitlist survival improved over the decades as did posttransplant survival. Other notable changes over time include fewer patients experiencing allograft rejection or infection after transplant. Waitlist and posttransplant survival have changed dramatically in patients with single ventricle physiology and significantly differ by stage of single ventricle palliation. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Key points from this PHTS Registry summary and focus on patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease in particular, include the changing landscape of candidates and recipients awaiting heart transplant. There is clear improvement in waitlist and transplant outcomes for children with both cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease alike.
Characteristics of Cardiac Abnormalities in Pediatric Patients With Acute COVID-19
Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause cardiac abnormalities in adults. Cardiac abnormalities are well-described in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, but effects in children with acute COVID-19 are less understood. In this multicenter study, we assessed the cardiac effects of acute COVID-19 among hospitalized children (<21 years) admitted to three large healthcare systems in New York City. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study. We examined electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, troponin, or B-type natriuretic peptides. Results Of 317 admitted patients, 131 (41%) underwent cardiac testing with 56 (43%) demonstrating cardiac abnormalities. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were the most common (46/117 patients (39%)), including repolarization abnormalities and QT prolongation. Elevated troponin occurred in 14/77 (18%) patients and B-type natriuretic peptide in 8/39 (21%) patients. Ventricular dysfunction was identified in 5/27 (19%) patients with an echocardiogram, all of whom had elevated troponin. Ventricular dysfunction resolved by first outpatient follow-up. Conclusion Electrocardiogram and troponin can assist clinicians in identifying children at risk for cardiac injury in acute COVID-19.
The Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies of the Airway or Lung in Infants with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Differences in Midterm Outcomes: A National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Registry Analysis
Infants with single ventricle physiology and congenital anomalies of the airway and/or lung are potentially poor candidates for staged palliation. The prevalence and midterm outcomes for patients with anomalies of the airway or lung with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are unknown. We performed an analysis of data in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome from the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry. The prevalence of congenital anomalies of the airway or lung in the registry was determined. Clinical characteristics and midterm outcomes were compared between infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with and without anomalies of the airway or lung. Fifty-seven (2.3%) of 2467 infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome enrolled in the registry had congenital airway or lung anomalies. Infants congenital anomalies of the airway or lung had significantly lower transplant-free survival at 1Â year (49.5 vs 77.2%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Infants with airway or lung anomalies had longer combined hospital length of stay for stage 1 and stage 2 palliation (102 vs 65.1Â days, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and underwent more major procedures (2.04 vs 0.93 procedures, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) than those without. There was no difference in the number of interstage readmissions (1.85 vs 1.89, pâ€‰=â€‰0.87) or need for non-oral feeding supplementation (71.4 vs 54.5%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.12) between groups. Infants enrolled in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and anomalies of the airway or lung have increased morbidity and mortality at 1Â year compared to those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome alone.
Strain in children with MIS-C and acute COVID-19
Context: Cardiac injury has been described in both acute COVID-19 and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Echocardiographic strain has been shown to be a sensitive measure of systolic function. Aims: We sought to describe strain findings in both the groups on initial presentation and follow-up. Settings and Design: A retrospective study analyzing echocardiograms of all patients presenting with acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C at our institution between March 2020 and December 2020 was performed. Subjects and Methods: TOMTEC software was used for strain analysis in both the study groups (COVID-19 and MIS-C) and age-matched healthy controls. Strain was correlated with LV ejection fraction (EF) and serum troponin levels. Results: Forty-five patients (34 - MIS-C and 11 - COVID-19) met the inclusion criteria. There was a statistically significant decrease in LV longitudinal strain (P < 0.001), LV circumferential strain (P < 0.001), and left atrial strain (P = 0.014) in the MIS-C group when compared to the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in LV longitudinal strain (P = 0.028) in the acute COVID-19 group. All patients with abnormal left ventricular EF (LVEF) had abnormal strain. However, 14 (41%) patients in the MIS-C group and 3 (27%) in the acute COVID-19 group had preserved LVEF but abnormal strain. There was a significant correlation with LV longitudinal strain (P = 0.005) and LVEF (P = 0.002) and troponin in patients with MIS-C. Abnormal strain persisted in one-third of patients in the MIS-C and acute COVID-19 groups on outpatient follow-up. Conclusions: Patients with MIS-C and acute COVID-19 can develop myocardial dysfunction as seen by abnormal strain. LV longitudinal strain correlates with cardiac injury as measured by serum troponin in patients with MIS-C. Strain may provide an additional tool in detecting subtle myocardial dysfunction. It can be routinely employed at diagnosis and at follow-up evaluation of these patients.
A multi-site survey of providers on the management of heart failure with dilated cardiomyopathy in children
We conducted a scientific survey of paediatric practitioners who manage heart failure with dilated cardiomyopathy in children. The survey covered management from diagnosis to treatment to monitoring, totalling 63 questions. There were 54 respondents from 40 institutions and 3 countries. There were diverse selections of management options by the respondents in general, but also unanimity in some management options. Variation in practice is likely due to the relative paucity of scientific data in this field and lack of strong evidence-based recommendations from guidelines, which presents an opportunity for future research and quality improvement efforts as the evidence base continues to grow.
Strain in children with MIS-C and acute COVID-19
CONTEXT/UNASSIGNED:Cardiac injury has been described in both acute COVID-19 and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Echocardiographic strain has been shown to be a sensitive measure of systolic function. AIMS/UNASSIGNED:We sought to describe strain findings in both the groups on initial presentation and follow-up. SETTINGS AND DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective study analyzing echocardiograms of all patients presenting with acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C at our institution between March 2020 and December 2020 was performed. SUBJECTS AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:TOMTEC software was used for strain analysis in both the study groups (COVID-19 and MIS-C) and age-matched healthy controls. Strain was correlated with LV ejection fraction (EF) and serum troponin levels. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 0.002) and troponin in patients with MIS-C. Abnormal strain persisted in one-third of patients in the MIS-C and acute COVID-19 groups on outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Patients with MIS-C and acute COVID-19 can develop myocardial dysfunction as seen by abnormal strain. LV longitudinal strain correlates with cardiac injury as measured by serum troponin in patients with MIS-C. Strain may provide an additional tool in detecting subtle myocardial dysfunction. It can be routinely employed at diagnosis and at follow-up evaluation of these patients.
Recurrence of Acute Myocarditis Temporally Associated with Receipt of the mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccine in a Male Adolescent [Case Report]
Heart Transplantation of a Preterm Infant With HLHS
A 33-week gestation, 1.75-kg female infant with mitral stenosis/aortic atresia variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and severe ventriculo-coronary connections underwent surgical septectomy and bilateral pulmonary artery banding at five weeks of age (2.10 kg). After separation from bypass, she developed hemodynamic instability requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. She was listed for heart transplantation and transplanted after three days of support with an oversized heart (4.7:1 donor-recipient weight ratio).
Surveillance for cardiac allograft vasculopathy: Practice variations among 50 pediatric heart transplant centers
BACKGROUND:Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of mortality after heart transplantation (HT) in children. Variation in CAV screening practices may impact detection rates and patient outcomes. METHODS:Among 50 Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS) sites from 2001 to 2016, coronary evaluations were classified as angiography or non-invasive testing, and angiograms were designated as routine or symptom based. CAV detection rates stratified by routine vs symptom-based angiograms were calculated. Freedom from CAV and mortality after CAV diagnosis, stratified by study indication, were calculated. RESULTS:A total of 3,442 children had 13,768 coronary evaluations; of these, 97% (nâ€¯=â€¯13,012) were for routine surveillance, and only 3% (nâ€¯=â€¯333) were for cause. Over the study period, CAV was detected in 472 patients (14%). Whereas 58% (nâ€¯=â€¯29) of PHTS sites evaluate by angiography alone, 42% reported supplementing with a non-invasive test, although only 423 non-invasive studies were reported. Angiographic detection of CAV was higher for symptom-based testing than for routine testing (29% vs 4%, p < 0.0001), although routine testing identified a majority of cases (88%; nâ€¯=â€¯414). The 10-year freedom from CAV was 77% overall. Once CAV is detected, 5-year graft survival was 58%, with lower survival for patients diagnosed after symptoms angiogram than after routine angiogram (30% vs 62%; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Development of a robust model for CAV risk should allow low-risk patients to undergo less frequent invasive angiography without adverse impact on CAV detection rates or outcomes.