Black Experiences in Academic Psychiatry
Isaac, Kathleen S.; Baptiste, Jessica Jean; Outram, Tacina; Drake, Christin
The objective of this article is to examine the experiences and challenges faced by Black professionals in the academic psychiatry workforce. The authors used data collected from previous literature to explore experiences faced at each level of the academic psychiatry pipeline. Review of the literature revealed that systemic barriers contribute to burnout, high turnover, and underrepresentation of Black professionals in academic psychiatry. Retention of Black mental health professionals is fostered by institutional support and interventions that address racism and promote growth and development at every level. While there appears to be a growing body of literature in social medical and popular press, peer-reviewed literature on the experiences of Black trainees and professionals in academic psychiatry is still limited. Additional studies, including systematic data collection among Black psychiatrists, psychologists, faculty, and clinical support staff in academic settings, are needed to continue to examine experiences related to race and racism along the educational and professional workforce continuum. [Psychiatr Ann. 2022;52(12):509-513.].
Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care
Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I
Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.
Development and Evaluation of the Curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) Healthy Living: a Diabetes Prevention and Control Program for Underserved Cancer Survivors
Conlon, Beth A; Kahan, Michelle; Martinez, Melissa; Isaac, Kathleen; Rossi, Amerigo; Skyhart, Rebecca; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson
Underserved minority communities have few resources for addressing comorbidity risk reduction among long-term cancer survivors. To address this community need, we developed and piloted the Bronx Oncology Living Daily (BOLD) Healthy Living program, the first known diabetes prevention and control program to target cancer survivors and co-survivors in Bronx County, NY. The program aimed to facilitate lifestyle change and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through weekly group nutrition education (60-90 min) and exercise (60 min) classes. We examined baseline characteristics of participants using simple descriptive statistics and evaluated program implementation and impact using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. The curriculum, which drew from the social-ecological framework and motivational and cognitive behavioral strategies, consisted of 12 culturally and medically tailored modules with options for implementation as a 12- or 4-week program. Seven programs (four 12 weeks and three 4 weeks in length, respectively) were implemented at five community site locations. Sixty-six cancer survivors and 17 cancer co-survivors (mean age 60.5â€‰Â±â€‰10.2 years) enrolled in one of the programs. Most participants were female (95.2 %) minority (55.4 % black, 26.5 % Hispanic/Latino) breast cancer survivors (75.7 %). Median program attendance was 62.5 % and did not significantly differ by program length; however, 67.3 % of participants achieved â‰¥60 % attendance among the 12-week programs, compared to 41.9 % among the 4-week programs, and this difference was statistically significant (pâ€‰=â€‰0.02). Overall, participants reported significant pre/post improvements in perceived health as good/excellent (66.0 to 75.5 %; pâ€‰=â€‰0.001) and borderline significant decreases in perceived pain as moderate/severe (45.5 to 38.2 %; pâ€‰=â€‰0.05). More than 90 % of participants reported that the program helped them to achieve their short-term goals, motivated them to engage in healthier behaviors, and felt that the nutrition and exercise classes were relevant to their needs. These results indicate that a short-term lifestyle intervention program for adult cancer survivors was acceptable in our community and motivated cancer survivors to improve their HRQoL. The curriculum can be used as a tool to facilitate development of similar programs in the future.
Health literacy, information seeking, and trust in information in Haitians
Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Isaac, Kathleen; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess heath literacy, health information seeking, and trust in health-related information among Haitian immigrants seen in primary care. METHODS:Health literacy was measured by the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS); items on health information use were from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. RESULTS:BHLS scores differed according to age, education, and survey language. Participants with lower levels of health literacy tended to be more likely to place "a lot" or "some" trust in family and friends and religious organizations and leaders as sources of information about health or medical topics. CONCLUSIONS:Constructing a culturally-tailored and appropriate intervention regarding health promotion requires understanding how the population accesses and conveys health information.
Discrimination, arrest history, and major depressive disorder in the U.S. Black population
Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Yang, Lawrence H; Greenspoon, Michelle; Miles, Rashun J; Slonim, Tzachi; Isaac, Kathleen; Brown, Monique J
Everyday discrimination contributes negatively to depressive symptomatology among Blacks in the US and being arrested could add to this depression. Using data from the National Survey on American Life, the present study determined the association between an arrest history and major depressive disorder (MDD), while accounting for discrimination among African Americans, US-born Afro-Caribbeans and first-generation Black immigrants. Findings from logistic regression analyses adjusted for discrimination suggested an arrest history is associated with 12-month MDD (Adjusted OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.10) and lifetime MDD (Adjusted OR=1.56 CI=1.17-2.09). Accounting for drug and alcohol dependence attenuated the association between arrest history and 12-month MDD, but not lifetime MDD. The associations between arrest history and both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and discrimination and lifetime MDD varied by ethnic/immigrant group. Specifically, while the association between arrest history and MDD (both 12-month and lifetime) was strongest among US-born Afro-Caribbeans, evidence consistent with the immigrant paradox, the association between discrimination and lifetime MDD was particularly relevant for first-generation Black immigrants, suggesting discrimination may hinder the protection of first-generation status. Mental health prevention and treatment programs should target the stress associated with being arrested and experiencing discrimination among US Blacks.