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Scaling virtual health at the epicentre of coronavirus disease 2019: A case study from NYU Langone Health

Sherwin, Jason; Lawrence, Katharine; Gragnano, Veronica; Testa, Paul A
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the drive of health-care delivery towards virtual-care platforms. While the potential of virtual care is significant, there are challenges to the implementation and scalability of virtual care as a platform, and health-care organisations are at risk of building and deploying non-strategic, costly or unsustainable virtual-health systems. In this article, we share the NYU Langone Health enterprise approach to building and scaling an integrated virtual-health platform prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offer lessons learned and recommendations for health systems that need to undertake or are currently undertaking the transition to virtual-care delivery.
PMID: 32686555
ISSN: 1758-1109
CID: 4542622

Moral distress among physician trainees: Drivers, contexts, and adaptive strategies [Meeting Abstract]

McLaughlin, S E; Fisher, H; Lawrence, K; Hanley, K
BACKGROUND: Moral distress is defined as a situation in which an individual believes they know the ethically appropriate action to take but are unable to take that action. The concept of moral distress is increasingly recognized as an important mediator of occupational stress and burnout in medicine, particularly in the nursing profession. However, there is a dearth of literature on moral distress among physician trainees, with the majority focused on dilemmas in end-of-life care. This study explores the phenomenon of moral distress among internal medicine trainees, with particular focus on drivers, situational contexts, and adaptive strategies such as coping mechanisms.
METHOD(S): We report qualitative data from a mixed methods prospective observational cohort study of internal medicine (IM) residents and associated faculty at a large, urban, academic medical institution. Five focus groups were conducted with 15 internal medicine residents (PGY1- 3), between January and October 2019. In each focus group trained facilitators conducted semi-structured interviews using prompts which focused on definitions of, experiences with, and consequences of moral distress. Transcripts were independently coded by investigators, and analyzed by major themes and sub-themes. Discrepant themes and codes were reviewed by the full research team to establish clarity and consensus. Data were analyzed using Dedoose software.
RESULT(S): Focus group participants were equally distributed by gender (7 women, 8 men) and across training year (30% PGY1, 20% PGY2 40% PGY3). Experience with moral distress was universal among participants, and was identified across four major domains: personal values and morals, professional competency and training challenges, interpersonal relationships and conflicts, and systems/structural issues. Participants identified unique, place-based moral distress across different clinical environments, including intensive care units, wards, and outpatient environments, as well as between private, public, and government- run hospital facilities. Participants described a number of adaptive mechanisms for managing moral distress, including social support and connectivity, humor, and disassociation.
CONCLUSION(S): Physician trainees experience considerable moral distress across multiple domains during the course of their training. They also develop unique adaptive strategies and copingmechanisms tomanage and learn from distressing experiences. This improved understanding ofmoral distress among physician trainees, particularly drivers and protective factors, has important implications for the training of physicians, and may have a role in promoting wellness and resilience among physicians across the training and professional pipeline
EMBASE:633957241
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4803322

Moral distress among physician trainees: Contexts, conflicts, and coping mechanisms in the training environment [Meeting Abstract]

McLaughlin, S E; Fisher, H; Lawrence, K; Hanley, K
BACKGROUND: Moral distress is defined as a situation in which an individual believes they know the ethically appropriate action to take but are unable to take that action. The concept ofmoral distress is increasingly recognized as an important mediator of occupational stress and burnout in healthcare, particularly in the nursing literature. However, there is a dearth of literature focusing on moral distress among physician trainees, particularly as regards the clinical training environment. This study explores the phenomenon of moral distress among internal medicine trainees, with an emphasis on the contexts of clinical training and professional role development.
METHOD(S): We report qualitative data from a mixed methods prospective observational cohort study of internal medicine (IM) residents and associated faculty at a large, urban, academic medical institution. Five focus groups were conducted with 15 internal medicine residents (PGY1- 3), between January and October 2019. In each focus group trained facilitators conducted semi-structured interviews using prompts which focused on definitions of, experiences with, and consequences of moral distress. Transcripts were independently coded by investigators, and analyzed by major themes and sub-themes. Discrepant themes and codes were reviewed by the full research team to establish clarity and consensus. Data were analyzed using Dedoose software.
RESULT(S): Focus group participants were equally distributed by gender (7 women, 8 men) and across training year (30% PGY1, 20% PGY2 40% PGY3). Experience with moral distress was universal among participants. Trainees identified several drivers of moral distress that were unique to their professional development as clinicians and their role as trainees/ learners within clinical teams, including: feelings of inadequacy in clinical or procedural skills, being asked to performduties outside of their scope of practice, discomfort with the idea of 'practicing' skills on patients, poor team communication, disagreements with senior team members, experiences of disempowerment as junior team members, and overwhelming or inappropriate administrative or non-clinical burdens. Participants also identified unique, place-based moral distress across different clinical environments, including intensive care units, wards, and outpatient environments, aswell as between private, public, and government-run hospital facilities.
CONCLUSION(S): Physician trainees experience considerable moral distress in the context of their professional development, with unique drivers of moral distress identified in the training and clinical team context. This improved understanding of factors unique to the trainees' experience has implications for tailoring educational experiences as professional development activities, as well as potential wellness- and resilience-building among physician trainees. It may also inform the training of physician leaders and seniors clinicians who engage with trainees in learning and clinical environments
EMBASE:633957209
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4803342

A vision for evaluations of responsive environments in future medical facilities

Chapter by: Lu, D. B.; Ergan, S.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, K.
in: Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, ISARC 2020: From Demonstration to Practical Use - To New Stage of Construction Robot by
[S.l.] : International Association on Automation and Robotics in Construction (IAARC), 2020
pp. 805-812
ISBN: 9789529436347
CID: 4963542

Climate Migration And The Future Of Health Care [Editorial]

Lawrence, Katharine
ISI:000596704700022
ISSN: 0278-2715
CID: 4735942

Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. DESIGN: We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. SETTING: International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). RESULTS: 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform.
PMCID:4265098
PMID: 25492274
ISSN: 2044-6055
CID: 1452692