Fibular flap reconstruction of the cervical spine for repair of osteoradionecrosis
Powell, Daniel K; Jacobson, Adam S; Kuflik, Paul L; Persky, Mark S; Silberzweig, James E; Khorsandi, Azita S
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Although cervical spine reconstruction with osteocutaneous fibular flap microvascular grafting has been described, simultaneous reconstruction of the cervical vertebral column and laryngectomy have not been described. PURPOSE: To present a unique case of combined cervical spine and laryngectomy reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: We modified a previously reported procedure reconstituting the cervical spine and pharynx with a single fibular flap in a case of posterior pharyngeal ulceration and osteomyelitis/osteoradionecrosis without spinal deformity. RESULTS: We present a case of simultaneous cervical stabilization and pharynx reconstruction with a fibular graft in a life-saving treatment of osteoradionecrosis complicated by acute cervical kyphosis and spinal cord compression in a 55-year-old patient with extensive head and neck cancer history and recent recurrence of hypopharyngeal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Rigid anterior plate fixation and subsequent posterior fixation were required after corpectomy and total laryngectomy in our patient with extensive surgical scarring and radiation history because of severe spinal deformity secondary to osteoradionecrosis. We achieved successful preservation of neurologic function and resolution of pain.
Sagittal plane deformity in the adult patient
Joseph, Samuel A Jr; Moreno, Anthony P; Brandoff, Jared; Casden, Andrew C; Kuflik, Paul; Neuwirth, Michael G
Recent studies have demonstrated that sagittal balance is the most important and reliable radiographic predictor of clinical health status in the adult with a spinal deformity. Affected persons typically present with intractable pain, early fatigue, and a perception of being off-balance. Nonsurgical management with nonsteroidal and analgesic medications as well as physical therapy plays a limited role. Surgical correction is the primary method of alleviating symptoms. The surgical approach depends largely on the amount of correction required to restore overall balance. Options include posterior-only or combined anterior-posterior surgery. The decision-making process often includes posterior-based osteotomies, such as the Smith-Petersen or pedicle subtraction, or vertebral column resection. Regardless of approach or osteotomy technique, spinal fusion with restored sagittal balance is the goal of any reconstructive procedure.
Cauda equina syndrome: a comprehensive review
Gitelman, Alex; Hishmeh, Shuriz; Morelli, Brian N; Joseph, Samuel A Jr; Casden, Andrew; Kuflik, Paul; Neuwirth, Michael; Stephen, Mark
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare syndrome that has been described as a complex of symptoms and signs--low back pain, unilateral or bilateral sciatica, motor weakness of lower extremities, sensory disturbance in saddle area, and loss of visceral function--resulting from compression of the cauda equina. CES occurs in approximately 2% of cases of herniated lumbar discs and is one of the few spinal surgical emergencies. In this article, we review information that is critical in understanding, diagnosing, and treating CES.
Blood conservation techniques in spinal deformity surgery: a retrospective review of patients refusing blood transfusion
Joseph, Samuel Abraham Jr; Berekashvili, Ketevan; Mariller, Marjorie M; Rivlin, Michael; Sharma, Krishn; Casden, Andrew; Bitan, Fabian; Kuflik, Paul; Neuwirth, Michael
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To review the effectiveness of blood conservation techniques in the spinal fusion of patients that refuse blood transfusion; specifically the Jehovah's witnesses population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: Spinal surgery can be challenging in patients refusing blood transfusion. There is paucity in the literature examining blood conservation techniques in spinal surgery. METHODS: The radiographic and medical records of 19 Jehovah's witnesses patients who underwent spinal deformity surgery at a single institution between 2000 and 2003 were reviewed. Patients were assessed for excessive blood loss (EBL), deformity correction, operative time, perioperative complications, and hospital stay. At latest follow-up (mean, 40 months; range, 8-76) the patients were examined for radiographic fusion, progression and complications. RESULTS: Spinal fusion was attempted in 19 patients, with a mean age of 17 years (range, 10-36 years). All 19 patients were identified through the "Bloodless Surgery Program." Hypotensive anesthesia, hemodilution, and cell saver was employed for all 19 cases. Erythropoietin with supplemental iron was used in 15 patients. Aprotinin was used in 3 patients. EBL and blood returned by cell saver averaged 855 and 341 mL, respectively. Operative times average 315 minutes. The average drop in hemoglobin from after surgery was 3.1 g/dL. There were 2 intraoperative complications: (i) transient loss of somatosensory evoked potential/motor evoked potential signals; and (ii) one surgery abandoned due to EBL. The average spinal deformity correction was 58%. There were 3 postoperative complications, none related to their refusal of a transfusion. 17 patients were available for radiographic and clinic follow-up of at least 24 months. All displayed radiographic fusion without progression. CONCLUSION: These blood conservation techniques allow satisfactory completion of deformity surgery on those patients not willing to be transfused and without major anesthetic or medical complications.
Efficacy of aprotinin as a blood conservation technique for adult deformity spinal surgery: a retrospective study
Tayyab, Neil Arif; Mariller, Marjorie M; Rivlin, Michael; Berekashvili, Ketevan; Bitan, Fabien D; Casden, Andrew M; Kuflik, Paul; Neuwirth, Michael G
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study that involved a total of 82 adult deformity patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery with instrumentation of 6 or more levels. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of aprotinin in reducing blood loss in adult spinal deformity patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Aprotinin is an antifibrinolytic agent, which has been proven to be effective as a blood-conserving agent in cardiac surgery. This study focused specifically on adult spine deformity patients. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed a total of 82 adult deformity patients (patients with diagnosis of adult scoliosis and kyphosis) who underwent spinal fusion surgery with instrumentation of 6 or more levels. Forty-one patients who received aprotinin were compared with a control group of 41 patients who did not receive aprotinin. Specific surgical outcome parameters and postoperative complications were assessed. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 47 years and 41 years for the aprotinin group and the control group respectively. Thirty-nine percent of cases and 44% of controls had staged anterior/posterior fusion surgery, 39% of cases and 41% of controls underwent single stage posterior fusion surgery and the remaining 27% of cases and 15% of controls had same day anterior and posterior fusion surgery. The average number of levels fused and instrumented was 11.2 for the aprotinin group and 10.7 for the control group. The differences in mean blood loss and blood returned by cell-saver were statistically significantly lower in the aprotinin group (1324 mL vs. 2113 mL; P = 0.005 and 390 mL vs. 657 mL; P = 0.003). The amount of drainage after surgery was similar (1421 mL vs. 1388 mL; P = 0.982). The aprotinin group received an average of 2.73 units of blood. This was significantly lower than the average 5.02 units that the controls received (P = 0.003). The rate of complications was comparable and no allergic reaction to aprotinin was noted. One case exhibited a transitory elevation of blood urea nitrogen/creatinine which resolved before discharge. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that the administration of aprotinin is a safe and effective method to reduce blood loss and to decrease the need for transfusions without increasing risk of complication in the younger patients in relatively good general health undergoing spinal deformity surgery requiring 6 or more levels of fusion.
Rheumatoid arthritis in the cervical spine: what you need to know
Wollowick, Adam L; Casden, Andew M; Kuflik, Paul L; Neuwirth, Michael J
Evidence-based review of the role of aprotinin in blood conservation during orthopaedic surgery
Kokoszka, Agnieszka; Kuflik, Paul; Bitan, Fabien; Casden, Andrew; Neuwirth, Michael
Aprotinin is a serine protease inhibitor with antifibrinolytic properties that has been approved as a blood-conserving drug in cardiac surgery by the United States Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the current evidence from Level-I trials, we make a grade-A recommendation for use of the high-dose aprotinin regimen in hip and spine surgery. Because of conflicting data, the low-dose aprotinin therapy as well as the use of aprotinin in patients with cancer cannot be recommended (grade-I recommendation). High-quality randomized trials are necessary to determine the optimal (and minimal) therapeutic dose of aprotinin and the optimal time of aprotinin administration during surgery.
The use of short and rigid anterior instrumentation in the treatment of idiopathic thoracolumbar scoliosis: a retrospective review of 24 cases
Bitan, Fabien D; Neuwirth, Michael G; Kuflik, Paul L; Casden, Andrew; Bloom, Norman; Siddiqui, Sid
STUDY DESIGN: The results of short anterior rigid rod instrumentation used to treat thoracolumbar scoliosis in 24 patients were reviewed retrospectively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficiency of anterior correction of thoracolumbar scoliosis using a single rigid rod with segmental fixation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This method of treatment results from the historical difficulties noted in obtaining adequate correction in both planes for this particular type of curve while saving as many segments as possible. This approach seems to combine the advantages and avoid the limitations of posterior segmental and previous anterior segmental techniques. METHODS: For this study, 24 patients with thoracolumbar scoliosis underwent anterior spinal correction and fusion using a single rigid rod and segmental fixation. Additionally, in five patients, this construct was supplemented by interbody titanium cages. The patients were assessed for the amount of correction obtained in the main curve, and for the spontaneous correction of the compensatory curves above and below. Trunk balance was measured on standing radiographs. The average age of the patients was 17.3 years (range, 10-43 years), and the average follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2-4.5 years). RESULTS: Correction of the major curve at follow-up assessment was 54%, with a 73% correction of the instrumented area. The upper compensatory curve showed a 21% correction, and the lower curve a 59% correction. Over the duration of the follow-up period, the instrumented area showed kyphosis progression of 6.5 degrees. The five patients who had insertion of Harms cages tended to have a lower rate of correction. The average number of intervertebral mobile segments fused was 2.9 (range, 2-5 segments). No intraoperative complication occurred in relation to the anterior approach. A temporary sympathectomy effect on the side of the approach was noted in most patients. Two radiologic pseudarthrosis and one loss of fixation at the top of the construct were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior correction and fusion using solid rod instrumentation constitute effective and safe treatment of thoracolumbar scoliosis. As compared with posterior systems, it provides correction and rebalance of the trunk through a shorter fusion segment.
An algorithm for selection of instrumentation levels in scoliosis
Margulies, J Y; Floman, Y; Robin, G C; Neuwirth, M G; Kuflik, P; Weidenbaum, M; Farcy, J P
Appropriate levels for instrumentation and fusion in scoliosis have been a matter of debate among surgeons since the introduction of operative management of this deformity. We set out to examine the hypothesis that the amount of correction achieved in all planes during surgical instrumentation of a curve should be less than, or comparable to, the degree of correction attainable at any non-instrumented adjacent curve. An algorithm was designed to facilitate preoperative planning and intraoperative performance of spinal fusion procedures in the management of scoliosis. To test the validity of the hypothesis and the proposed algorithm, measurements were taken from the preoperative radiographs of 200 patients. The dimensions of the curves were obtained from an initial set of four X-ray films: (1) standing anteroposterior film of the whole spine, (2) standing lateral film of the whole spine, (3) two properly performed side-bending films including each curve of the spine. With this data, a plan was designed using the algorithm. The results of this plan were compared with the actual results of the surgery, which were revealed only at this stage. All patients in whom actual instrumentation levels fell within those predicted by the proposed algorithm had no imbalance at follow-up. All patients whose actual instrumentation levels were short of those recommended by the algorithm showed obvious imbalance on final postoperative standing radiograph
Interscalene brachial plexus block anesthesia for upper extremity surgery
Kuflik, P; Ankolekar, A; Stuchin, S A; Steinbach, S; Bernstein, R
Use of the interscalene brachial plexus block for upper extremity anesthesia in a primarily rheumatoid population is reviewed in 88 cases. The interscalene approach described by Winnie was used. Anesthesia was effective in 93% of the cases. Failure to achieve anesthesia was more likely to occur in surgical procedures on the distal upper extremities. The technique allowed effective and reliable anesthesia throughout the upper extremity, including the shoulder. Problems associated with other forms of upper extremity regional anesthesia, such as tourniquet pain, pneumothorax, systemic anesthetic toxicity, and inadequate duration of anesthesia, were not encountered. Difficulties with more distally based block administration due to decreased shoulder motion were obviated.