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Choosing wisely initiative for reducing urine cultures for asymptomatic bacteriuria and catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria in an 11-hospital safety net system

Krouss, Mona; Alaiev, Daniel; Shin, Da Wi; Talledo, Joseph; Israilov, Sigal; Chandra, Komal; Zaurova, Milana; Manchego, Peter Alacron; Tsega, Surafel; Cohen, Gabriel; Bravo, Nathaniel; Kupferman, Tania; Madaline, Theresa; Cho, Hyung J
BACKGROUND:Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common. Overtreatment of ASB leads to harm, including adverse effects from antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and increased length of stay. METHODS:This quality improvement initiative targeted inappropriate urine cultures (UC) across 11 hospitals and 70 ambulatory clinics in a safety-net setting. A mandatory prompt for appropriate indications for UC orders and a best practice advisory (BPA) for UC on patients with urinary catheters were created. UC ordering was compared preintervention (June 2020-October 2021) to postintervention (December 2021-August 2022). Variation in hospitals and clinics were assessed, as well as BPA responses by clinician type and specialty. RESULTS:Inpatient UCs decreased 20.9% (p < .001), and outpatient UCs was unchanged (2.6% increase, nonsignificant). Inpatient UCs on patients with urinary catheters decreased 21.6% (p < .001). Temporal trends were also assessed. High variation was seen among hospitals and clinics. Low BPA acceptance rates were seen in internal medicine and family medicine clinicians. Attendings showed high acceptance to the BPA compared to other clinicians. CONCLUSIONS:This initiative successfully decreased UCs in a large, safety-net system. Further study is needed in assessing variation among hospitals and clinics, as well as among clinician types and specialties.
PMID: 36870917
ISSN: 1527-3296
CID: 5432482

Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Hospitalized Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Ortigoza, Mila B; Yoon, Hyunah; Goldfeld, Keith S; Troxel, Andrea B; Daily, Johanna P; Wu, Yinxiang; Li, Yi; Wu, Danni; Cobb, Gia F; Baptiste, Gillian; O'Keeffe, Mary; Corpuz, Marilou O; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Amin, Amee; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T; Wu, Yanyun; Philley, Julie V; Devine, Megan S; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S; Santin, Alessandro D; Anjan, Shweta; Mathew, Reeba; Patel, Bela; Nigo, Masayuki; Upadhyay, Rabi; Kupferman, Tania; Dentino, Andrew N; Nanchal, Rahul; Merlo, Christian A; Hager, David N; Chandran, Kartik; Lai, Jonathan R; Rivera, Johanna; Bikash, Chowdhury R; Lasso, Gorka; Hilbert, Timothy P; Paroder, Monika; Asencio, Andrea A; Liu, Mengling; Petkova, Eva; Bragat, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; McPherson, David D; Sacco, Ralph L; Keller, Marla J; Grudzen, Corita R; Hochman, Judith S; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Corcoran, Anthony T; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Wronska, Marta W; Wu, Xinyuan; Srinivasan, Ranjini; Deng, Fang-Ming; Filardo, Thomas D; Pendse, Jay; Blaser, Simone B; Whyte, Olga; Gallagher, Jacqueline M; Thomas, Ololade E; Ramos, Danibel; Sturm-Reganato, Caroline L; Fong, Charlotte C; Daus, Ivy M; Payoen, Arianne Gisselle; Chiofolo, Joseph T; Friedman, Mark T; Wu, Ding Wen; Jacobson, Jessica L; Schneider, Jeffrey G; Sarwar, Uzma N; Wang, Henry E; Huebinger, Ryan M; Dronavalli, Goutham; Bai, Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z; Eldin, Karen W; Umana, Virginia E; Martin, Jessica G; Heath, Timothy R; Bello, Fatimah O; Ransford, Daru Lane; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Shenoi, Sheela V; Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Thapa, Bipin; Peterson, Jennifer L; Knauf, Kelly; Patel, Shivani U; Cheney, Laura L; Tormey, Christopher A; Hendrickson, Jeanne E
Importance/UNASSIGNED:There is clinical equipoise for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine the safety and efficacy of CCP compared with placebo in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving noninvasive supplemental oxygen. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:CONTAIN COVID-19, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19, was conducted at 21 US hospitals from April 17, 2020, to March 15, 2021. The trial enrolled 941 participants who were hospitalized for 3 or less days or presented 7 or less days after symptom onset and required noninvasive oxygen supplementation. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:A unit of approximately 250 mL of CCP or equivalent volume of placebo (normal saline). Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary outcome was participant scores on the 11-point World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on day 14 after randomization; the secondary outcome was WHO scores determined on day 28. Subgroups were analyzed with respect to age, baseline WHO score, concomitant medications, symptom duration, CCP SARS-CoV-2 titer, baseline SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, and enrollment quarter. Outcomes were analyzed using a bayesian proportional cumulative odds model. Efficacy of CCP was defined as a cumulative adjusted odds ratio (cOR) less than 1 and a clinically meaningful effect as cOR less than 0.8. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 941 participants randomized (473 to placebo and 468 to CCP), 556 were men (59.1%); median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-73); 373 (39.6%) were Hispanic and 132 (14.0%) were non-Hispanic Black. The cOR for the primary outcome adjusted for site, baseline risk, WHO score, age, sex, and symptom duration was 0.94 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.75-1.18) with posterior probability (P[cOR<1] = 72%); the cOR for the secondary adjusted outcome was 0.92 (95% CrI, 0.74-1.16; P[cOR<1] = 76%). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggested heterogeneity of treatment effect: at day 28, cORs were 0.72 (95% CrI, 0.46-1.13; P[cOR<1] = 93%) for participants enrolled in April-June 2020 and 0.65 (95% CrI, 0.41 to 1.02; P[cOR<1] = 97%) for those not receiving remdesivir and not receiving corticosteroids at randomization. Median CCP SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titer used in April to June 2020 was 1:175 (IQR, 76-379). Any adverse events (excluding transfusion reactions) were reported for 39 (8.2%) placebo recipients and 44 (9.4%) CCP recipients (P = .57). Transfusion reactions occurred in 2 (0.4) placebo recipients and 8 (1.7) CCP recipients (P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this trial, CCP did not meet the prespecified primary and secondary outcomes for CCP efficacy. However, high-titer CCP may have benefited participants early in the pandemic when remdesivir and corticosteroids were not in use. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT04364737.
PMID: 34901997
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 5084962

Case Report: A Cluster of Three Leptospirosis Cases in a New York City Abattoir and an Unusual Complication in the Index Case

Kupferman, Tania; Coffee, Megan P; Eckhardt, Benjamin J
We report the case of a 46-year-old man abattoir worker who developed myalgias, shortness of breath, and irritability 2 weeks after sustaining a laceration to the hand with a knife at work. During his hospital evaluation for septic shock he was noted to be febrile, hypotensive, profoundly jaundiced with aseptic meningitis, and renal failure, and was diagnosed with Leptospirosis interrogans infection confirmed by serum and urine polymerase chain reaction. After standard antibiotic therapy and recovery from severe clinical illness, he developed unilateral orchitis with pyuria secondary to leptospirosis, a well-established complication in the veterinary literature, but of which we offer the first report in humans in the English literature. The case presented was also the index case that uncovered a cluster outbreak of leptospirosis in New York City during the winter of 2016-2017, involving a total of three patients who lived or worked within a block of the abattoir. Two patients survived whereas the third died of pulmonary hemorrhage shortly after seeking medical care.
PMID: 29016310
ISSN: 1476-1645
CID: 2732332