Long-term results for gastric banding as salvage procedure for patients with weight loss failure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
BACKGROUND:Studies reporting revisionary options for weight loss failure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have been underpowered and lacking long-term data. We have previously shown that short-term (12 mo) and midterm (24 mo) weight loss is achievable with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for failed RYGB. The present study represents the largest published series with longest postoperative follow-up of patients receiving salvage LAGB after RYGB failure. OBJECTIVE:To investigate long-term results of salvage gastric banding. SETTING/METHODS:University Hospital, New York, United States. METHODS:Data were prospectively collected with retrospective review. Baseline characteristics were evaluated and weights at multiple time intervals (before RYGB, before LAGB, each year of follow-up). Additional data included approach (open or laparoscopic), operative time, hospital length of stay, and postoperative complications. RESULTS:with 22.5% total weight loss and 65.9% excess weight loss. The long-term reoperation rate for complications related to LAGB was 24%, and 8% of patients ultimately had their gastric bands removed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of our study have shown that LAGB had good long-term data as a revisionary procedure for weight loss failure after RYGB.
Comment on: laparoscopic stomach intestinal pylorus-sparing surgery as a revisional option after failed adjustable gastric banding: a report of 27 cases with 36-month follow-up [Editorial]
Long term results for gastric banding as salvage procedure for patients with weight loss failure after Roux-en-y gastric bypass [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a common and effective form of bariatric weight loss surgery. However, a subset of patients will fail to achieve the expected total body weight loss (TBWL) greater than 20% after 12 months or experience significant weight regain despite dietary, psychiatric, and behavioral counseling. Although alternative procedural interventions exist for operative revision after suboptimal RYGB weight loss, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides an option with short operative time, low morbidity, and effective results. We have previously demonstrated that short-term (12-month), and mid-term (24-month) weight loss is achievable with LAGB for failed RYGB. The objective of this study is to report the long term 5 year outcomes of LAGB after RYGB failure. Methods and Procedures: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data before and after RYGB when available, and before and after revision with LAGB was performed. The data included weight, height, body mass index, gender, race, age, operative time, length of stay, postoperative complications, and percentage of total body weight loss. Results: A total of 182 patients (81.3% female, 18.7% male) were included in this study. The mean age of patients undergoing LAGB after RYGB was 47+/-9.98 years old. The majority of patients (98.4%) underwent gastric band placement laparoscopically, with 2 patients requiring conversion to an open procedure, and 1 planned open approach. The mean preoperative weight was 319+/-64 lbs and BMI of 53+/-10 kg/m2 before RYGB. After RYGB, patients experienced a mean %TBWL of 16+/-11%, had a weight of 264+/-50 lbs, and a BMI of 43+/-7 kg/m2 before undergoing LAGB an average of 9 years after their first bariatric procedure. At the time of 5 year follow up after LAGB the patients had a %TBWL of 35+/-13%, weight of 201.9+/-46 lbs, and had a BMI of 33+/-7 kg/m2. The mean operative time was 73+/-34 minutes and 85% of patients had a hospital length of stay less than 24 hours. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that LABG had good long term data as a revi-sionary procedure for weight loss failure after RYGB. Patients experienced a satisfactory amount of total body weight loss with reduction in BMI and had a short operative time and length of stay
Factor VIII elevation may contribute to portomesenteric vein thrombosis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a multicenter review of 40 patients
BACKGROUND: Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) has been increasingly reported after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Factor VIII (FVIII) is a plasma sialoglycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis. There is increasing evidence that FVIII elevation constitutes a clinically important risk factor for venous thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence of FVIII elevation as well as other clinical characteristics in a multicenter series of patients who developed PMVT after LSG. SETTING: University hospitals. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients that developed PMVT after laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 2006 to 2016 at 6 high-volume bariatric surgery centers. RESULTS: Forty patients who developed PMVT postoperatively, all after LSG, were identified. During this timeframe, 25,569 laparoscopic bariatric surgery cases were performed, including 9749 LSG (PMVT incidence after LSG = .4%). Mean age and body mass index were 40 years (18-65) and 43.4 kg/m2 (35-59.7), respectively. Abdominal pain was the most common (98%) presenting symptom. Of patients, 92% had a hematologic abnormality identified, and of these, FVIII elevation was the most common (76%). The vast majority (90%) was successfully managed with therapeutic anticoagulation alone. A smaller number of patients required small bowel resection (n = 2) and surgical thrombectomy (n = 1). There were no mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of clinical suspicion and prompt diagnosis/treatment of PMVT usually leads to favorable outcomes. FVIII elevation was the most common (76%) hematologic abnormality identified in this patient cohort. Further studies are needed to determine the prevalence of FVIII elevation in patients seeking bariatric surgery.
One vs two stage gastric band conversion to sleeve gastrectomy: A comparison of weight loss [Meeting Abstract]
Aim: The literature supports comparable safety profiles in regard to performing one vs. two stage revisional conversions of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands to sleeve gastrectomies. In this discussion, we compare weight loss differences between one and two stage gastric band removal to sleeve gastrectomy procedures. The reasoning behind this discussion is the question: can an appropriately sized sleeve be created at the same time as gastric band removal (assuming scar tissue and tissue swelling), and can that sleeve permit adequate weight loss? Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent gastric band removal and subsequent sleeve gastrectomies between 2008 and 2016. We reviewed each patient's BMI at the time of the revisional sleeve gastrectomy and compared the BMI reduction (BMIR) and percentage total body weight loss (%BWL) after one year between patients undergoing a concurrent gastric band removal and sleeve gastrectomy vs. those undergoing a gastric band removal with an interval sleeve gastrectomy (3 or more months after band removal). Results: Between 2008 and 2016 there were 259 patients who underwent surgery converting a gastric band to a sleeve gastrectomy (191 one stage, 68 two stage). We compared the weight loss parameters for those following up at one year for both one stage and two stage conversions (104 one stage, 38 two stage). One stage conversions exhibited a 16.95% total body weight loss while two stage conversions exhibited a 17.95% total body weight loss (p=0.08). BMI reduction was also reviewed at one year showing 7.49 for one stage and 7.95 for two stage procedures (p=0.81). Conclusions: The safety of one vs. two stage laparoscopic adjustable gastric band conversion to sleeve gastrectomy has been supported in the literature. We demonstrate that there is no statistical difference in weight loss, after one year, between patients having their conversion at the same time (one stage) or in an interval manner (two stage). Therefore, there appears to be no weight loss benefit favoring a one vs. two stage procedure-thus leaving the choice up to surgeon's level of operative comfort and preference
Treatment of Gerd after Sleeve Gastrectomy with Hiatal Hernia Repair and Conversion to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass [Meeting Abstract]
The management of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy can be challenging. After conservative measures with medical management, dietary changes, and behavioral modification have failed, revision surgery can be considered. Preoperative evaluation should include radiographic and endoscopic studies to assess for any possible anatomic or functional etiologies. We present a case of a patient with refractory GERD after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy who was found to have a large sliding hiatal hernia. She was successfully treated with a hiatal hernia repair and conversion to roux-en-y gastric bypass
The impact of a sleeve gastrectomy clinical pathway on outcomes and hospital costs [Meeting Abstract]
Aims: Our institution implemented a Value-Based Medicine (VBM) clinical pathway to standardize the pre-, peri-, and post-operative management of longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) patients. The goal of the program was to decrease patient length of stay (LOS) while maintaining the same clinical outcomes seen prior to initiation. Methods: The VBM pathway was instituted in September of 2014. A retrospective review was performed of all primary LSG cases from 2011-2015. Pre-VBM LSG patients were matched to post-VBM patients in a 1:1 ratio. Matching criteria were age within five years, body-mass index (BMI) within 5 kg/m, expected LOS within 0.5 days, same sex, and same status for prior abdominal surgery. Patients < 18 years of age, body mass index (BMI) < 35, and those with prior bariatric surgery were excluded from analysis. Primary outcomes were LOS, LOS > 2 days, operating room (OR) time, and cost per admission. Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmissions and reoperations. Results: There were 426 pre-VBM and 507 post-VBM patients. After matching for age, sex, BMI, expected LOS and previous abdominal surgery, there were 330 patients in each of the pre-VBM and post-VBM groups. There were no clinically significant demographic differences between the two groups. The post-VBM group had shorter mean OR time (75.1 vs 95.8 min, p<.0001), shorter LOS (1.50 vs 1.94 days, p<.0001), lower cost (median cost $792 less than pre-VBM group, p<.0001), and lower reoperation rate (0.0% vs 2.1%, p=.015). Readmission rate was lower in the post-VBM group, but did not reach statistical significance (2.7% vs 4.9%, p=.154). After controlling for hospital trends over time, LOS > 2 days (p=.008) and median cost (p=.019) remained significant. OR time (p=.058) and mean LOS (p=.338) still showed an improved trend, but could not be directly correlated to VBM implementation. Conclusions: Standardization of clinical care for LSG patients is feasible and effective. Patient length of stay and hospital cost were successfully decreased with no negative impact seen on 30-day post-operative outcomes
Is endoscopic stenting for sleeve leaks always necessary? a comparison of management protocols [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Endoscopic stent placement after sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) leak is usually considered part of the treatment algorithm. We have experienced varying success with stents and have also seen patients who have difficulty tolerating the stent or who have experienced worsening leak with the stent. The purpose of this study is to review our experiences with these stents to contribute to the growing literature of the effectiveness in the management of sleeve leaks. Setting: Academic medical center. Methods: A retrospective review of all reported sleeve leaks between 2 high-volume bariatric surgery centers were reviewed. Data was collected on the presentation of these leaks as well as the entire post-operative course. Cases spanned from 2006 to 2016. Information was collected on clinical presentation, radiographic findings, endoscopic findings, stent placement, stent complications, re-intervention rate, and re-operation rate. Stent complications were defined as any persistent leak, PO intolerance, nausea/vomiting, radiographic evidence of migration, or abdominal pain that required either replacement/repositioning or removal of the stent. Results: 32 sleeve leaks were identified across our institutions. Two cases were excluded for lack of post-operative course data. 18 (60%) of 30 were treated at some point with an endoscopic stenting procedure. Complications that could be attributed directly to the stent were identified in 14 of the 18 cases (78%).The average number of interventions in the stent group was 3.7 compared to 0.75 in the no stent group (p<0.005).The average number of total admitted days was significantly higher in the stent group with 25.5 days versus 12.58 (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Patients who undergo stenting for the management of leak following a sleeve gastrectomy appear to require more interventions and have higher length of stay. Further studies are needed in order to better identify those patients who may benefit from endoscopic interventions and those who should be managed alternatively
Weight loss outcomes among patients referred after primary bariatric procedure
BACKGROUND: Bariatric patients may not always obtain long-term care by their primary surgeon. Our aim was to evaluate weight loss outcomes in patients who had surgery elsewhere. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis. Postreferral management included nonsurgical, revision, or conversion. Primary outcomes were percent excess weight loss (%EWL) overall, according to original operation, and based on postreferral management. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2013, there were 569 patients. Mean follow-up was 3.1 years. Management was 42% nonsurgical, 41% revision, and 17% conversion. Overall, mean %EWL was 45.3%. Based on original surgery type, %EWL was 41.2% for adjustable gastric banding vs 58.3% for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (P = .0001). Management affected %EWL (41.2% nonsurgical vs 45.3% revision vs 55.1% conversion, P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred after bariatric surgery can achieve satisfactory weight loss. This differs based on surgery type and management strategy.
The utility of radiological upper gastrointestinal series and clinical indicators in detecting leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a case-controlled study
BACKGROUND: Leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) often presents after hospital discharge, making timely diagnosis difficult. This study evaluates the utility of radiological upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series and clinical indicators in detecting leak after LSG. METHODS: A retrospective case-controlled study of 1762 patients who underwent LSG from 2006 to 2014 was performed. All patients with radiographically confirmed leaks were included. Controls consisted of patients who underwent LSG without leak, selected using a 10:1 case-match. Data included baseline patient characteristics, surgical characteristics, and UGI series results. Clinical indicators including vital signs, SIRS criteria, and pain score were compared between patients who developed leak and controls. RESULTS: Of 1762 LSG operations, 20 (1.1 %) patients developed leaks and were compared with 200 case-matched controls. Three patients developed leak during their index admission [mean = 1.3 days, range (1, 2)], while the majority (n = 17) were discharged and developed symptoms at a mean of 17.1 days [range (4, 63)] postoperatively. Patients diagnosed with leak were similar to controls in baseline and surgical characteristics. Contrast extravasation on routine postoperative UGI identified two patients with early leaks, but was negative in the remainder (89 %). Patients with both early and delayed leaks demonstrated significant clinical abnormalities at the time of leak presentation, prior to confirmatory radiographic study. In multiple regression analysis, independent clinical factors associated with leak included fever [OR 16.6, 95 % CI (4.04, 68.10), p < 0.0001], SIRS criteria [OR 7.0, 95 % CI (1.47, 33.26), p = 0.014], and pain score >/=9 [OR 19.1, 95 % CI (1.38, 263.87), p = 0.028]. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast extravasation on routine postoperative radiological UGI series may detect early leaks after LSG, but the vast majority of leaks demonstrate normal results and present 2-3 weeks after discharge. Therefore, clinical indicators (specifically fever, SIRS criteria, and pain score) are the most useful factors to raise concern for leaks prior to confirmatory radiographic study and may be used as criteria to selectively obtain UGI studies after LSG.