Chronotype, social jetlag, and time perspective
The phase of entrainment (chronotype) is known to be associated with time perspective (TP), suggesting that the state of circadian system is involved in the long-term planning of human life. However, little is known regarding the influence of circadian misalignment on long-term planning ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social jetlag (SJL) and TP. A total of 1064 schoolchildren and university students (mean age Â± standard deviation, 19.2Â Â±Â 2.9Â years; range, 15-25Â years; females, 71.7%) from four cities in the Russian Federation located between 56.9 and 61.7 degrees North completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Study participants also indicated personal data (age, sex, height weight, place of residence, and achievements). A multiple regression analysis with stepwise inclusion of predictors in the model was performed to evaluate associations between time perspective characteristics (dependent variables) and predictor variables. The change in R2 was used as the measure of effect size. Chronotype was found to be a moderate predictor of future TP (B =Â 0.034; Î”R2Â =Â 0.037). In addition, sleep quality was found to be a moderate predictor of past negative (B =Â 0.043; Î”R2Â =Â 0.074), present fatalistic (B =Â 0.021; Î”R2Â =Â 0.035), and deviation from balanced TP (B =Â 0.034; Î”R2Â =Â 0.066). Mood seasonality was a moderate predictor of present hedonistic TP (B =Â 0.016; Î”R2Â =Â 0.038), and social jetlag was a weak predictor of present fatalistic (B =Â 0.052; Î”R2Â =Â 0.019), future (B =Â -0.033; Î”R2Â =Â 0.004), and deviation from balanced TP (B =Â 0.047; Î”R2Â =Â 0.012). In conclusion, this study found a weak but significant association between social jetlag and TP in adolescents and young adults.