HIV Testing Among Men at Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection Before and After the 2006 CDC Recommendations
OBJECTIVES: Testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the key first step in HIV treatment and prevention. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended annual HIV testing for people at high risk for HIV infection. We evaluated HIV testing among men with high-risk heterosexual (HRH) contact and sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) before and after the CDC recommendations. METHODS: We used data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2002 and 2006-2010, to assess proportions of HRH respondents and MSM reporting HIV testing in the prior 12 months, compare rates of testing before and after release of the 2006 CDC HIV testing guidelines, and examine demographic variables and receipt of health-care services as correlates of HIV testing. RESULTS: Among MSM, the proportion tested was 37.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2, 47.2) in 2002, 38.2% (95% CI 25.9, 52.2) in 2006-2008, and 41.7% (95% CI 29.2, 55.3) in 2008-2010; among HRH respondents, the proportion was 23.7% (95% CI 20.5, 27.3) in 2002, 24.5% (95% CI 20.9, 28.7) in 2006-2008, and 23.9% (95% CI 20.2, 28.1) in 2008-2010. HIV testing was more likely among MSM and HRH respondents who received testing or treatment for sexually transmitted disease in the prior 12 months, received a physical examination in the prior 12 months (MSM only), or were incarcerated in the prior 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of annual HIV testing was low for men with sexual risk for HIV infection, and little improvement took place from 2002 to 2006-2010. Interventions aimed at men at risk, especially MSM, in both nonmedical and health-care settings, likely could increase HIV testing.
Hyperparathyroidism and Complications Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in HIV-Infected Adults in New York City, New York
Abstract Although recent studies report a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected adults similar to that in the general population, metabolic complications of vitamin D deficiency may be worsened with HIV infection and remain insufficiently characterized. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study to determine prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism among HIV-infected patients attending an urban clinic. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)-vitamin D <20 ng/ml and insufficiency as 20 to <30 ng/ml, and hyperparathyroidism as parathyroid-hormone >65 pg/ml. We used the X(2) test to compare proportions and logistic regression to assess for associations. Among 463 HIV-infected patients, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 59%. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism was 30% among patients with vitamin D deficiency, 23% among those with insufficiency, and 12% among those with sufficient vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of hyperparathyroidism. Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with elevated alkaline phosphatase, a marker for increased bone turnover. Although efavirenz use was associated with vitamin D deficiency, and protease inhibitor use with decreased odds of vitamin D deficiency, there was no statistical difference in rates of hyperparathyroidism stratified by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use. Given the increased risk of osteopenia with HIV infection and cART use, vitamin D supplementation for all HIV-infected patients on cART should be prescribed in accordance with the 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines. In HIV-infected patients with severe vitamin D deficiency or hyperparathyroidism, screening for osteomalacia and osteopenia may be warranted.
HIV and Tuberculosis: a Deadly Human Syndemic
Summary: A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB. Moreover, multidisciplinary approaches that consider HIV and TB together, rather than as separate problems and diseases, will be necessary to prevent further worsening of the HIV-TB syndemic. This review examines current knowledge of the state and impact of the HIV-TB syndemic and reviews the epidemiological, clinical, cellular, and molecular interactions between HIV and TB
Glycated Hemoglobin A(1c) as Screening for Diabetes Mellitus in HIV-Infected Individuals
Abstract The American Diabetes Association now recommends hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) screening for the diagnosis of diabetes. It has been reported that HbA(1c) levels underestimate glycemic levels in HIV-infected persons. We examined the performance of HbA(1c) as a screening test for diabetes in a group of HIV-infected people without diabetes. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study among HIV-infected patients determining the sensitivity and specificity of HbA(1c) as a screening test compared to fasting blood glucose (FBG). The effect of treatment regimen on the relationship between HbA(1c) and FBG was assessed by multiple linear regressions. Twenty-two of the 395 patients included in the study were newly diagnosed with diabetes based on FBG>/=126 mg/dL. Using a cutoff of HbA(1c)>/=6.5%, HbA(1c) had a sensitivity of 40.9% and specificity of 97.5% for identification of incident diabetes. At an HbA(1c) level of 5.8% the product of sensitivity and specificity was maximized, with values of 88.8% and 77.5% respectively. Higher mean cell volume (MCV) values (p=0.02) and current use of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; p=0.02) significantly increased the slope, while PI use significantly decreased the slope (p<0.001), of the linear regression of HbA(1c) compared to FBG. Tenofovir use did not significantly alter the slope or y-intercept of the line. Among HIV-infected nondiabetic patients, HbA(1c) is insensitive, although highly specific for diagnosing diabetes. Current antiretroviral (ART) use has significant and variable influence on the relationship between HbA(1c) and FBG. The use of HbA(1c) in conjunction with FBG may be the best modality to screen for diabetes.
REASONS FOR HIV TESTING AMONG MSM ATTENDING A COMMERCIAL SEX VENUE-BASED TESTING PROGRAM IN NEW YORK CITY [Meeting Abstract]